[Clan Sinclair]
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A Timeline

Here is a brief outline of major events that have shaped Sinclair history. New entries are solicited; see the timeline entry submission form.

See also

- 5000 atlatl
c2700 B.C. Chinese Calendar Emperor Huang Ti introduces first cycle of the Zodiac.
c2016 B.C., 1 Oct Era of Abraham Beginning of Jewish calendar
c1850 B.C. Abraham in Canaan.
- 1500 Olmecs
- 1500 Mayas
c1250 B.C. Moses Moses in Egypt.
c968 B.C. First Temple Solomon's Temple.
- 900 Chavins in N. Peru
776 B.C., 3 July First Olympiad First Olympic Games
753 B.C., 21 Apr Rome Traditional date of the foundation of Rome.
747 B.C., 26 Feb Era of Nabonassar The basis of calculations of Ptolemy.
660 B.C., 11 Feb Amaterasu Sun goddess founds Japanese Imperial line.
c628 B.C. Zoroaster b. One probable date.
c600 B.C. Massalia Source: ToW
c675 B.C. Scythians domesticate horses for riding.
c650 B.C. Centaurs? or just Scythians.
c650 B.C. Cimmerians driven from Scythia by the Scythians.
c. 600 B.C. Scots in Spain According to Herodotus (c.f. Pillars of Hercules)
587 B.C., Aug First Temple Destroyed by the Babylonians; beginning of the Babylonian Captivity.
538 B.C. Return from Babylon Persian King Cyrus permits Hebrews to return.
515 B.C. Second Temple Organization by Ezra and Nehemiah results in a new temple.
333 B.C. Alexander the Great conquers Persia.
324 B.C., 12 Nov Era of Alexander Commonly used for dating in the ancient world.
312 B.C., 1 Sep Era of Seleucus Commonly used for dating in the ancient world.
204 B.C. Great Wall Shih Huang Ti erects wall to keep out barbarians.
164 B.C. Temple Purification Judas Maccabaeus purifies the Temple
125 B.C., 19 Oct Era of Tyre Commonly used for dating in the ancient world.
- 100 Teotihuacan
100 B.C., 12 July Julius Caesar born
63 B.C. Pompey takes Jerusalem for Rome.
58 B.C. Caesar in Gaul
51 B.C. Caesar leaves Gaul
48 B.C., 9 Aug Era of Antioch Commemorating the battle of Pharsalus in Thessaly in which Pompey was defeated by Caesar.
45 B.C., 1 Jan Julian Era Julius Caesar reforms the calendar.
37- 4 B.C. Herod the Great King of Judea.
31 B.C., 2 Sep Era of Augustus Commemorating the Battle of Actium.
26 B.C., 29 Aug Egyptian Year Augustus reforms the Egyptian calendar.
c4 B.C. Jesus b. Before the death of King Herod the Great.
c3 B.C., 6 Jan Twelfth Night The Three Wise Men, Kings, or Magi, traditionally named Gaspar, Melchior and Balthazar, and representing Europe, Asia and Africa, bring gifts to the baby Jesus, twelve nights after the birth. Traditionally the night is called Twelfth Night and the day is Epiphany.
Catholic Until the Reformation, most of Europe west of the Balkans was Catholic.
c30 Crucifixion Jesus crucified.
41, 24 Jan Caligula assassinated Roman emperor Gaius Cassius Germanicus killed.
64, 18 July Great Fire of Rome Great Fire of Rome begins (Nero didn't fiddle)
T.E. Lawrence d. 1935, May 19 Also known as "Lawrence of Arabia/Auranz-bey," died in England from injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash.
Clive Sinclair's Sinclair ZX80 introduced. Z80 1980, 21 November —
70 Temple Destroyed Romans destroy Jerusalem and disperse Jews.
150 Mayans
250 Franks
284, 29 Aug Era of Diocletian Commonly used for dating. Also called Era of Martyrs by Eusebius and early ecclesiastical writers.
324 Constantine Roman Emperor Constantine I, the Great who made Christianity legal and founded Constantinople.
84 Mons Graupius Romans under Agricola defeat Picts under Calgacus; 10,000 Picts and 340 Romans killed.
121 Hadrian's Wall Completed in 129.
139 Antonine Wall
297 Picts first mentioned Source: Mackie
326- 335 Church of the Holy Sepulchre Constantine builds the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) on the site where his mother Helena is reputed to have found the True Cross
336, 25 Dec First Christmas First recorded celebration of Christmas on Dec. 25 took place in Rome.
372 Huns invade Europe
406 Vandals, Alans, Sueri Source: Ashe
c412 St. Patrick in Gaul Source: Ashe
383 Magnus Maximus declared Roman Emperor in Britain
388 Magnus Maximus defeated at Battle of Poetovio (Italy) Spanish by origin, Magnus Clemens Maximus commanded Gratian's army in Britain. It was there that in July 383, his soldiers proclaimed him emperor, after which Maximus invaded Gaul, where Gratian was then campaigning. Deserted by his troops, Gratian fled first for Lyons, and then Italy, but he was overtaken and assasinated. This left Maximus as ruler of Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa, a position he could have kept had his ambition not gotten the better of him. —
410 Constantine's officials deposed Emperor Constantine III's officials deposed from office in Britain
360 Scotti appear The Scotti were first mentioned by the Romans.
410? Cunnedda (Kenneth) King of Scots Source: Ashe
418 Visigoths, SW Gaul Source: Ashe
c430 Mérovée King of the Salian Franks
c450 Britons in Armorica Source: Ashe
451 B. Chalons-sur-Marne Attila the Hun defeated.
457 Aegidius at Soissons Source: Ashe
455? Ceredig raids Ireland Source: Ashe
458 Childeric I King of the Salian Franks
476 Fall of Rome The last western Roman Emperor abdicates.
481 Clovis I King of the Franks
496 Clovis Christian Paris capital
c527 Anno Domini Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little) propagates our current system of dating years from the birth of Jesus (although he got that date wrong).
519- 534 Cerdic King of Wessex
534- 560 Cynric King of Wessex son of Cerdic
c500 Fergus Mor King of Scots Source: Mackie
537, Mar 11 Goths besiege Rome
552, 9 July Era of the Armenians Armenians condemn the Council of Chalcedon.
558 Clotaire I King of the Franks
552 Cynric A saxon leader (perhaps part British) took Salisbury and founded the Kingdom of Wessex.
c555 Athelbert King of Kent
560- 591 Ceawlin King of Wessex son of Cynric
568 Athelbert attacks London
591- 97 Ceol King of Wessex son of Cutha
563 St. Columba in Scotland Source: Mackie
565, 22 Aug Nessie first sighted St Columba reported that he had seen a monster in Loch Ness.

"ON another occasion also, when the blessed man was living for some days in the province of the Picts, he was obliged to cross the river Nesa (the Ness); and when he reached the bank of the river, he saw some of the inhabitants burying an unfortunate man, who, according to the account of those who were burying him, was a short time before seized, as he was swimming, and bitten most severely by a monster that lived in the water; ...."

The story continues Columba asked if anyone would swim across the river and get a boat.. Lugneus Mocumin entered the water. The monster saw Lugneus swimming surfaced to eat Lugneus.. Columba raised his hand and made the sign of the Cross in the air. He called the name of God and spoke the monster "Go no further! Do not touch the man! Go back at once!" The monster retreated to the depths of the Loch Ness. Lugneus, unharmed brought the boat back. — Life of Saint Columba, Founder of Hy. Written by Adamnan, Ninth Abbot of that Monastery, ed. William Reeves, ( Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1874) Source: Internet Medieval Source Book.

573 Rhydderch Hael King of Picts
577 Battle of Dyrham (Glos) between Saxons and Britons
613 Clotaire II King of the Franks
614 Persian Jerusalem Jerusalem falls to the Persians; True Cross is looted.
597 St. Augustine in Kent
597- 611 Ceolwulf King of Wessex son of Cutha
604, 26 May Saint Augustine of Canterbury died The "Apostle of the English," Augustine (not to be confused with Augustine of Hippo) founded the Christian Church in southern England, first archbishop of Canterbury.
611- 643 Cynegils King of Wessex son of Ceol
597 St. Columba d. Scottish saint dies. Source: Toulson
c598 Manau Guotodins Scot attacks Angles. Source: Ashe
c. 600 Scots in Dalriada Scotti emigrate from Ireland to the northwest of Britain, in what is now Argyllshire, and that they called Dalriada.
603 Aethefrith Source: Mackie
603 Aidan def. at Degsastan Source: Mackie
620 Heraclius retakes Jerusalem Byzantine Emperor retakes Jerusalem and True Cross.
621 Dagobert I King of the Franks
622, July 16 Hejira Mohammed flees from Mecca to Medina. Year 1 of the Muslim calendar, in the long history of Islam
632, 16 June Era of Yezdegird III Persian.
638 Clovis II de Neustrie King of Neustria
617 Edwin Source: Mackie
632 Oswald Source: Mackie
638 Muslim Jerusalem Muslims take Jerusalem.
639, 19 Jan Dagobert I d. King of Austrasia, Soissons, Burgundy, and Neustria.
656 Clovis II King of the Franks
656 Childéric II d'Austrasie King of Austrasia
670 Childéric II King of the Franks
643 Cenwalh King of Wessex son of Cynegils
645 Mercians rule Wessex King of Wessex
648- 672 Cenwalh King of Wessex again
672- 674 Seaxburh King of Wessex Queen of Cenwalh
641 Oswiu Source: Mackie
653 Talorcan Source: Mackie
663 Synod of Whitby at Lindisfarne; Celts lose Source: Mackie
672 Brude King of Picts Source: Mackie
673 Thierry III de Neustrie King of Neustria
679 Thierry III King of the Franks
687 Pepin de Landen Mayor of the Palace
691 Clovis III King of the Franks
691 Dome of the Rock Caliph Abd al-Malik completed, on the site of Solomon's Temple, the oldest Muslim building which has survived basically intact in its original form.
674 Cenfus King of Wessex line of Ceolwulf
674- 676 Aescwine King of Wessex son of Cenfus
676- 685 Centwine King of Wessex son of Cynegils
685- 688 Caedwalla King of Wessex line of Ceawlin
688- 726 Ine King of Wessex line of Ceawlin
685 Egfrith defeated, died Source: Mackie
685, 20 May Battle of Nechtansmere, Forfarshire The Saxon King Egfrid is defeated by the Pictish King Nechtan. Egfrid is slain. This defines a southern border of Scotland. Cairn, battle, local history, Dalriada, Norse, and more Norse.
690 Andamnan of Iona hosts Arculf Source: B&S p. 28
695 Childebert III King of the Franks
700 Tiahuanacu Peru
711 Dagobert III King of the Franks
711 El Andalus Spain falls to the Muslims.
712 Kojiki Japanese Record of Ancient Matters
c710 Celtic Church eclipsed Source: Mackie
710 Nechtan Source: Mackie
714 Charles Martel Charles the Hammer, Mayor of the Palace
715- 720 Chilpéric II King of the Franks
720- 737 Thierry IV de la Neustrie King of Neustria
720 Nihon shoki Chronicle of Japan
732, 17 Oct B. Poitiers Charles Martel defeats Saracens.
726- 740 Aethelheard King of Wessex brother-in-law of Ine
740- 756 Cuthred King of Wessex kinsman of Aethelheard
731 bishop at Whithorn Source: Mackie
742- 751 Childéric III King of the Franks
751 Pepin the Short King of France
768 Charles & Carloman Kings of France
771 Carloman d. King of France dies.
793, 8 June Vikings sack Lindisfarne Beginning of the Viking Age.
756- 757 Sigeberht King of Wessex
757- 786 Cynewulf King of Wessex
786- 802 Beorhtric King of Wessex
752 Angus MacFergus King of Scots Source: Mackie
756 Scots def. Britons Source: Mackie
795 Norse raid Iona, Scotland Source: Mackie
800 Vikings Channel coast invaded by Vikings.
800, 25 Dec Charlemagne, Emperor of the Romans
820 Vikings in France Seine valley laid waste by Vikings.
836 Contentin invaded Christians persecuted in the Contentin region.
840 Charles the Bald King of France
802 Egbert King of Wessex
827 Egbert King of Wessex became King of All England
839 Egbert d. King of England died
839 Ethelwulf King of England
806 Vikings ravage Iona Scotland for the third time
832 Battle of Athelstaneford in East Lothian: Angus mac Fergus, King of the Picts, defeats the army of Athelstane, King of Northumbria and the Saltire is seen in the clouds.
c837 Norse settle in northern Scotland
840 Pepin I King of Aquitaine
843 Peace of Verdun divides Charlemagne's empire
843, 24 June Vikings destroy Nantes
858 Bayeux devastated by the Vikings.
858 Ethelwulf d. King of England dies.
858 Ethelbald & Ethelbert Joint Kings of England
860 Ethelbald d. King of England dies
860 Ethelbert Sole King of England
845 Saint Clair Eventual namesake of the Sinclair family is born.
846 Kenneth I McAlpine King of Scots. From a long line of Celtic royalty, but the first king to unite all of Scotland.
858 Donald I King of Scots
858 Kenneth I MacAlpin d. King of Scots dies.
859 Donald I King of Scots
865 Norse invade East Anglia
866 Ethelbert d. King of England dies.
866 Ethelred I King of England
866, 1 Nov Norse sack York
870 Danes sack Dumbarton Source: Mackie
862, 13 Apr Donald I d. King of Scots dies.
863 Constantine I King of Scots
875 Charles the Bald Roman Emperor
875 Vikings persecute Further persecution in the West.
877 Louis II, the Stammerer King of France
871 Ethelred I d. King of England dies.
871 Alfred the Great King of England
871- 890 Rogenwald the Mighty First Jarl of Orkney and the progenitor of the Sinclairs. Source: Niven Sinclair
877 Constantine I k. King of Scots by Danes Source: Mackie
877 Aed Whitefoot King of Scots
878 Battle of Ethandun
878 Aed d. King of Scots dies.
879 Louis III & Carloman King of France
882 Louis III d. King of France dies
885 Charles II, the Fat King of France
888 Eudes King of France
c878 Giric King of Scots gives liberty to church Source: Mackie
878 Eochaid and Giric Kings of Scots
c880 Sigurd Jarl of Orkney Source: Mackie
884, 4 Nov Saint Clair [historical Normandy] English hermit martyred in Normandy.
885 Vikings at Paris Paris beseiged by Vikings
898 Charles III, the Simple King of France
900 Mayans fall
901 Alfred the Great d. King of England dies
901 Edward the Elder King of England
889 Donald II King of Scots
891 Einar Jarl of Orkney Source: Mackie
900 Constantine II King of Scots Source: Mackie
900 Donald II d. King of Scots
911 Treaty of St Clair Charles III, the Simple, cedes Neustria to Rollo the Viking at St Clair-sur-Epte; Neustria becomes known as Normandy.
922 Robert King of France
923 Rudolph Duke of Burgundy
0930, 23 June Iceland Allthing Iceland's Parliament first met.
936 Louis IV King of France
925 Edward the Elder d. King of England dies
925 Athelstan King of England
940 Athelstan d. King of England dies
940 Edmund King of England
946 Edmund d. King of England dies
912 Rollo baptised [Rollo the Viking] in Rouen.
943 Malcolm I King of Scots Source: Mackie
943 Constantine II d. King of Scots dies
954 Lothair King of France
946 Edred King of England
955 Edred d. King of England dies
955 Edwy King of England
958 Edwy d. King of England dies
958 Edgar King of England
954 Malcolm I d. King of Scots
954 Indulf King of Scots Source: Mackie
c960 Indulf takes Edinburgh
962 Indulf d. King of Scots dies
962 Dubh, the Black King of Scots
973 Edgar's penny King of England orders striking of silver penny.
973 Edgar emperor crowned 'Emperor of Britain' at Bath
975, 8 Jul Edgar d. King of England dies
976 Edward King of England
978, 18 Mar Edward d. King of England dies.
966 Cullen King of Scots
967 Dubh d. King of Scots dies.
967 Culen the Whelp King of Scots
971 Culen d. King of Scots dies.
971 Kenneth II King of Scots Source: Mackie
986 Vikings in Greenland
986 Louis V King of France
987 Hugh Capet King of France
996 Robert II, the Wise King of France
978, 14 Apr Athelred II King of England
992 Dublin mint Norse settlers in Dublin open mint
995 Kenneth II d. King of Scots Source: Mackie
995 Constantine III King of Scots
997 Constantine III d. King of Scots dies.
997? Giric King of Scots
1000 Leif Eriksson in America
1002, 13 Nov Danes massacred in England English king Ethelred II launches massacre of Danish settlers
1013, Dec London surrenders to Danes
1016, Apr Athelred II d. King of England dies.
1016, May Edmund Ironside King of England
1016, 30 Nov Edmund Ironside d. King of England dies.
997 Kenneth III, the Brown King of Scots
999 Norse invade Kent again
1005, 25 Mar Kenneth III d. King of Scots dies.
1005, 26 Mar Malcolm II, MacKenneth King of Scots
c1014 Brian Boru King of Scots Source: Mackie
1031 Henry I King of France
1040 Gothic arch.
1016, 1 Dec Cnut King of England
1027 William b. Birth of William, the future conqueror of England, at Falaise.
1035, 12 Nov Cnut d. King of England dies.
1037, Dec Harald Harefoot King of England
1040, 17 Mar Harald Harefoot d. King of England dies.
1018 Battle of Carham Strathclyde annexed by Malcolm II, given to his grandson Duncan.
1034, 25 Nov Malcolm II d. King of Scots dies.
1034, 26 Nov Duncan I King of Scots
1035- 1046 Rogenwald II 19th Jarl of Orkney, son of Brusi. Source: Niven Sinclair
1035, 2 July Robert I, the Magnificient, d. Duke of Normandy dies, Nicaea, Bithynia, Turkey
1054 Great Schism East (Orthodox) and West (Roman) Christian churches mutually excommunicate each other.
1040, 18 Mar Harthacnut King of England
1042, 8 Jun Harthacnut end King of England ends reign
1043, 2 Apr Edward the Confessor King of England
1048, 1 May Derby and Worcester earthquake
1040, Aug 14 Macbeth King of Scots. Macbeth replaced Duncan as king.
1047 Battle of Val-es-Dunes William the Bastard consolidates his power over Normandy.
1050 Macbeth visits Rome Source: Mackie
1054, 27 July Battle of Dunsinane Macbeth defeated near Crieff. The Sword Dance, or Ghillie Chalium has war as its starting point. The dance popular at Highland Games; legend has it that it was danced on the eve of battle, and that for the soldier to touch or displace the sword portended a curse in the approaching fight. There are many other theories regarding the origin of the Sword Dance, and one of is that Malcolm III Canmore, after having defeated one of Macbeth's chiefs at the Battle of Dunsinane in 1054, appropriated his defeated adversaries sword, placed over his own to formed a cross with his own and danced wildly to the pipes.
1057 Malcolm III MacDuncan, Canmore King of Scots
1060 Philip I, the Good King of France
1057 Lady Godiva's ride through Coventry
1066, 4 Jan Edward the Confessor d. King of England dies. Enter William, stage left. Source: The Middle Ages, ed H.R. Loyn Thams and Hudson 1989 Singapore
1066, 5 Jan Harold II Godwinson King of England
1066, Sep 12 Hardraada sails Harald Hardraada, sailing from Norway to England, is augmented by allies from Orkney and Shetland.
1066, Sep 15 Hardraada burns Scarborough on first arriving in England.
1057 William 'The Seemly' Sinclair returns from Hungary with Atheling Edward 'The Exile' and Edward's daughter Margaret.
1057, Aug 15 Macbeth k. King of Scots killed by Malcolm, son of Duncan I at Lumphanan, Mar, Scotland
1057, Aug 16 Lulach King of Scots
c1065 Ingibiorg m. Malcolm Canmore Widow of Thorfinn the Mighty, Jarl of Orkney, marries King of Scots.
c1065 Thorfinn the Mighty d. Jarl of Orkney Source: Mackie
1066, Sep 20 Battle of Fulford Gate Harald Hardraada, defeats English. Harold Godwinson heads north from London.
1066, Sep 25 Battle of Stamford Bridge Harold Godwinson defeats Harald Hardraada near York.
1066, Sep 28 William invades England William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy, arrives in England. Nine(?) Sinclairs are with him.
1066, Oct 14 Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror defeats Harold Godwinson. Nine(?) Sinclairs assist him.
1066, 14 Oct Harold II k. King of England killed.
1066, Dec 25 William I William the Conqueror crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.
1068 Edgar Atheling defeated Rebellion of Edgar Atheling in the North of England crushed by Normans.
1069, Dec Normans lay waste to north of England
1070 Rebellion of Hereward the Wake in the Fen country
1087 Domesday Book compiled
1069 Malcolm II m. Margaret English princess becomes Queen of Scotland.
1073 Malcolm II homage to William I William of England def. Malcolm, who pays homage.
1087 Robert Curthose Duke of Normandy
c1090 maize cultivation in Georgia
1087 Fire sweeps through London after two years of plague
1087, 9 Sep William d. William the Conqueror, The Bastard, King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Rouen died in Rouen.
1087, 26 Sep William II Rufus King of England
1089, 28 May Lanfranc died Lanfranc Benedictine monk Abbot of La Bec Hellouine was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by William the Conqueror.
1097 Tower of London "White Tower" completed
1093, 13 Nov Battle of Alnwick King of Scots Malcolm III Canmore killed. Margaret dies soon after.
1093, 14 Nov Donald III Bane King of Scots
1093, 16 Nov Saint Margaret d. Feast day of the saint who arrived in Scotland with the Holy Rood and William ``the Seemly'' St. Clair, later became Queen, and died in 1093.
1094 Duncan II King of Scots Source: Mackie
1094 Donald III Bane restored as King of Scots
1100 Chanson de Roland
1108 Louis VI, the Fat King of France
1118 Knights Templar Founded in Jerusalem, at the site of Solomon's Temple.
1100, 2 Aug William II k. King of England killed in hunting accident.
1100, 5 Aug Henry I King of England
1113 Fire destroys Worcester
1097 Edgar King of Scots
1097 Donald III, Ban d. King of Scots dies.
1107, 8 Jan Edgar d. King of Scots dies.
1107, 9 Jan David King of Strathclyde
1107, 9 Jan Alexander I the Fierce King of Scots
1137 Louis VII, the Younger King of France
1132 London Sheriffs City of London granted the right to elect two sheriffs
1133 Lord Great Chamberlain Earl of Oxford appointed first Lord Great Chamberlain by King Henry I
1135, 1 Dec Henry I d. King of England dies.
1135, 22 Dec Stephen King of England
1124, 23 Apr Alexander I d. King of Scots dies.
1124, 24 Apr David I King of Scots
1134, 10 Feb Robert II, Curthose d. Duke of Normandy dies
1136- 1158 Rogenwald III 27th Jarl of Orkney, saint and crusader, killed near Loch Calder in Caithness, builder of St. Magnus Cathedral in Kirkwall, Orkney. Source: Niven Sinclair
1137 St. Magnus Cathedral Jarl Rognvald begins construction of St. Magnus Cathedral in Kirkwall, Orkney.
1150 Henry Normandy Duke of Normandy
1151 Henry Anjou Count of Anjou
1152 Henry m. Eleanor of Aquitaine
1154, 25 Oct Stephen d. King of England dies.
1154, 19 Dec Henry II King of England
1138 David I acquires Cumberland
1138, 22 Aug Battle of The Standard David I defeated by Prince Stephen of Northumbria.
1153, 24 May David I d. King of Scots dies.
1153, 25 May Malcolm IV, the Maiden King of Scots
1165, 9 Dec Malcolm IV d. King of Scots dies at Jedburgh.
1178, July 30 Barbarossa of Burgundy Frederick I (Barbarossa), crowned King of Burgundy
1180 Philip II, Augustus King of France
1170, 29 Dec Archbishop Thomas A Becket murdered by King Henry II's supporters.
1165, 10 Dec William the Lion King of Scots. His standard of a red lion rampant on a yellow field becomes the royal banner of Scotland, replacing the earlier Pictish boar.
1168 Auld Alliance begins William the Lyon makes alliance with Louis VII of France.
1174 Battle of Alnwick II William the Lyon captured by English at Alnwick.
1175 William released William the Lyon released from English captivity.
1175, 10th Aug Treaty of Falaise William the Lyon becomes prisoner of English at Falaise in Normandy, and there signs treaty with Henry II making Scotland a feudal posession of England. ``William ... swore fealty as his liege-man to the King of England. Nor he alone; his bishops and nobles were partners with him in this surrender of the ancient independence of their country, and the transaction was concluded, and Henry's hold upon Scotland made complete by the delivery into his hands of the castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, Berwick, Roxburgh, and Jedburgh, which were now garrisoned with his troops.''
1189, May 7 Hamburg Hanseatic The Kaiser Fiedrich Barbarossa granted customs and commercial rights to the German town of Hamburg. One of the first members of the Hanseatic League.
1191, Mar Philip II crusades King of France crusades
1205 France recovers most lands from England
1189, 6 Jul Henry II d. King of England dies.
1189, 3 Sep Richard I the Lionheart King of England
1199, 6 Apr Richard, the Lionheart d. King of England dies.
1199, 27 May King John King of England
1209, Nov King John excomm. King of England excommunicated by Pope Innocent III
1188, 11 Mar Scottish Church not English Pope Clement III declares Scottish church subject only to Rome, not England.
1189, Dec 5 Annullment of Treaty of Falaise Richard Lionheart of England offers this to William the Lyon of Scotland for 10,000 marks; William accepts.
1214, 4 Dec William the Lion d. King of Scotland dies at Stirling; buried at Arbroath.
1214, 5 Dec Alexander II the Peaceful King of Scots
1223 Louis VIII, the Lion King of France
1226 Louis IX, St. Louis King of France
1227, 18 Aug Genghis Khan d. Mongol warrior-ruler Genghis Khan, died during the siege of Hsingchungfu in West Hsia, China. Khan conquered from the Adriatic Sea to the Pacific Coast of China.
1229, Apr 12 Albigensians From 1208 until this date a Crusade was held in the southwest corner of France (Languedoc or Provence) against a people who called themselves Christians. Others called them Albigensians after their town of Albi, or Cathars. Their crime was a heretical interpretation of the religion and too much political power, in the person of Raymond VI of Toulouse (1194-1212), who on the onset of the crusade declared himself Catholic and tried to lead it, but later fought for the Cathars.
c1241- 1275 Mongol Invasions the largest land empire in history reached Europe, including Poland.
1215, 15 Jun Magna Carta King John of England is compelled to sign by his barons.
1215, 24 Aug Pope invalidates Magna Carta The pope Innocent III declared Magna Carta invalid. He was thankfully ignored. —
1216, 18 Oct King John d. King of England dies.
1216, 28 Oct Henry III King of England
1222 Argyll Alexander II of Scotland conquers Argyll.
1231 Jarls to Angus of Orkney Source: Mackie
1248, Aug 14 Cologne Cathedral begun Rebuilding after a fire of the largest Gothic church in northern Europe, the Cologne Cathedral, was begun, to be completed after 632 years, on 14 August 1880. First church on the site 873.
1260, 2 Sep Battle of Ain Jalud Egyptian Sultan defeats Mongols in Syria.
1249 University College, Oxford founded
1263 Balliol College, Oxford founded
1264 Merton College, Oxford founded
1264 First Corpus Christi procession takes place
1264, 14 May Henry III captured King of England captured by Simon de Montfort at Lewes.
1249, 8 July Alexander II d. King of Scots dies at Kerrera.
1249, 9 July Alexander III King of Scots, aged 8 years.
c1250 Thomas prophesies Clearances The Seer Thomas of Erceldoune (aka Thomas the Rhymer or True Thomas) reportedly prophesied about the Highlands:"The teeth of the sheep shall lay the (useless) plough up on the shelf." 350 odd years later, Coinneach Odhar, augmented Thomas' vision:
"The day will come when the Big Sheep will put the plough up in the rafters......the Big Sheep will overrun the country till they meet the Northern Sea... ...(and) in the end, old men shall return from new lands..."
1263, 1 Oct Battle of Largs Scots defeat Vikings. King Alexander III of Scotland, assisted by William St. Clair, defeats King Haakon of Norway. Norway loses the Western Isles. Haakon dies in Orkney.
1270 Philip III, the Hardy King of France
1285 Philip IV, the Fair King of France
1265, 4 Aug Battle of Evesham
1267 Duchy of Lancaster formed
1272, 16 Nov Henry III d. King of England dies.
1272, 17 Nov Edward I Longshanks King of England
1277 Norroy King of Arms Institution covering Northern England
c1270 William Wallace b. Source: ToW
1274, July 11 Robert Bruce b. Future King of Scots
1284 Statute of Wales "transfers wholly and entirely to the king's dominion the land of Wales"
1286, 19 Mar Alexander III k. King of Scots thrown from his horse and dies.
c1286, 20 Mar Margaret, Maid of Norway infant Queen of Scotland
1289, Oct 4 Louis X b. Louis X (the Stubborn) king of France (1314-16).
1290, 18 July Edward I expells Jews King Edward I of England orders expulsion of Jews
c1286, 28 Apr Parliament at Scone Election of Guardians
1290- 1292 1st Interregnum Kingdom of Scots Source: Mackie
1290, 16 Sep Margaret Maid of Norway d. Queen of Scotland dies. Drowns off Orkney coast on her way to Scotland.
1292, 30 Nov John Baliol King of Scots, chosen by Edward I of England, crowned at Scone.
1295, 23 Oct Auld Alliance revived Revived; King John Baliol of Scotland allies with France.
1302, Mar 11 Romeo m. Juliet Their wedding day, according to Shakespeare.
1303 France rec. Edward I's claim to Gascony
1296, July 10 England annexes Scotland Edward I deposes John Baliol, who becomes known as Toom Tabard.
1297, 11 Sep Battle of Stirling William Wallace of Scotland def. English, Cambuskenneth Bridge
1298, June 12 Battle of Black Ironside William Wallace routs English
1298, 22 July Falkirk Wallace loses to English and Welsh longbows Source: ToW
1303, 23 Feb Battle of Roslin Scots including Wallace, Comyn, and Sinclair repulse English at Sinclair home barony.
1306 Jews expelled from France
1305, 23 Aug Wallace executed Scots patriot Sir William Wallace was hung, drawn, and quartered in London, his body parts were later exhibited in assorted English cities.
1306, Feb 10 Bruce murders Comyn Robert Bruce murders his rival Comyn in a church at Dumfries.
1306, Mar 25 Robert I selected Robert the Bruce crowned at Scone as Robert I of Scotland by Isabel of Fife, countess of Buchan. Robert I and his troops continued the struggle led by William Wallace against the forces of Edward I of England. Finally, in 1328, Scotland became independent through the Treaty of Edinburgh signed between Robert I and Edward III. Robert I and his forces engaged in highly successful guerrilla tactics.
1306, June 19 Battle of Methven
1306, 11 Aug Battle of Dail Righ
1307, Friday 13 Oct Knights Templar Suppressed Philip the Fair of France suppressed the Knights Templar on charges of heresy.
1309- 1417 Popes at Avignon
1314 John I King of France (7 days)
1314 Louis X, the Headstrong King of France
1307, 7 Jul Edward I Longshanks d. King of England dies.
1307, 8 Jul Edward II King of England
1314 Exeter College, Oxford founded
1307, 10 May Battle of Loudoun Hill Robert the Bruce defeats English.
1307, Friday 13 Oct Knights Templar Escape Fleet escapes from La Rochelle to Scotland and Portugal. The Bruce would have had need of their fighting skills and their treasure, but he could not risk another Albigensian Crusade by welcoming them openly.
1307.05- 1314 Robert Bruce clears English out of Scotland Source: ToW
1314- 1328 Scots raid England Source: ToW
1314 Byland Robert I of Scotland defeats Edward II of England Source: ToW
1316 Philip V, the Tall King of France
1316 Edward Bruce brother of Robert Bruce invades Ireland Source: ToW
1318 Faughart Edward Bruce defeated, killed Source: ToW
1322 Charles IV, the Fair King of France
1318 Recognition of Cambridge as a University by the Pope
1314, 23 June Bannockburn Robert Bruce of Scotland meets the invading Edward II of England. Henry St. Clair (1275-1336) is there.
1314, 24 June Bannockburn, second day Robert I the Bruce of Scotland defeats Edward II of England. Battle of Bannockburn gains independence of Scotland. Henry Sinclair and his brother the Bishop of Dunkeld are there. Henry is with Bruce when he declares Scotland independent.
1319 Myton Scots win Source: ToW
1320, 6 Apr Declaration of Arbroath Baron Henry St. Clair(1275-1336) of Roslin signed it. Earl Magnus V of Orkney signed it. This is National Tartan Day in Canada and the United States.
1322, Oct 14 Bruce in Yorkshire Robert the Bruce defeats English
1325 Tenochtitlan Aztec capital
1328 France takes Flanders at Cassel Source: ToW
1328 Philip VI, of Valois King of France
1326 Oriel College, Oxford founded
1327, 1 Feb Edward III child King of England
1324, Jan Pope recognizes Robert the Bruce Pope John XXII recognizes the right of Robert I to the Scottish throne.
1326 Scottish Parliament first met.
1326, Apr Treaty of Corbeil forming a defensive alliance between Scotland and France
1327, 24 Jan Edward II forced to abdicate King of England abdicates
1328, 17 Mar Treaty of Edinburgh Regents of English King Edward III recognize Scottish independence; ratified later that year at Northampton.
1329 John Wycliffe born
1328, 4 May Peace of Northampton Regents of English King Edward III recognize Scottish independence, negotiated earlier that year at Edinburgh.
1329, 7 June Robert I the Bruce d. King of Scots dies.
1329, 8 June David II King of Scots
1330, 25 Aug Battle of Teba Sir William St. Clair dies at the Battle of Teba in Andalusia, Spain, while attempting to carry the heart of Robert Bruce to the Holy Land. His tombstone is in Rosslyn Chapel.
1332, 11 Aug Dupplin Muir Edward Baliol defeats Earl of Mar. Source: ToW
1333 Purchase of the Holy Cenacle ``The Franciscan Roger Garin, of the Province of Aquitaine, in the name of the Rulers of Naples, Robert of Anjou and Sancha of Maiorca, began negotiations for the purchase of the Holy Places from the Sultan En-Naser Muhammed.''
1337 Philip VI rejects English claims Source: ToW
1333 England absorbs Man Suzerainty of the Isle of Man assumed by King Edward III
1337 Duchy of Cornwall formed for the eldest son of the English Monarch.
1340 Queen's College, Oxford founded
1332, 12 Aug Dupplin Muir Second Day.
1332, 25th Dec Battle of Annan .
1333 David II takes refuge in France Source: ToW
1333, 19 July Battle of Halidon Hill Edward III defeats Scots.
1341 David II returns
1342 Purchase of the Holy Cenacle completed The rules of Naples inform the Pope that they have successfully purchased the Holy Cenacle.
1346, 26 Aug B. Crecy Edward III of England defeats Philip VI of France. This was a battle in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) between France and England, and was one of the earliest times that Welsh longbows defeated French knights. The French had crossbow from Genoa, but the Genoese crossbowmen were tired, ill-ordered, and were ridden down by their own side's knights, who then were shot down by the Welsh longbows. Source: Chronicles of Jean Froissart
1347 English take Calais Source: ToW
1347- 1354 The Black Death Bubonic plague kills 1/3 the population of Europe and causes massive disruptions in society, including longlasting effects on art, religious practices and beliefs.
1350 John II, the Good King of France
1343 Edward, the Black Prince created Prince of Wales
1344, 23 Apr Order of the Garter founded by King Edward III of England at Windsor.
1346, 12 July Edward III invades Normandy
1341 David II invades England
c1345 Prince Henry b. The future Prince Henry Sinclair is born, at Rosslyn Castle.
1346, 17 Oct Battle of Neville's Cross David II of Scotland defeated by English at Durham, captured.
1356, 19 Sep Battle of Poitiers John captured
1358 Jacquerie peasant revolt
1364 Charles V, the Wise King of France
1362 Clarenceux King of Arms Institution covering Southern England
1368 Justices of the Peace established by statute in England.
c1370 Lollards John Wycliffe, a survivor of the Black Death, published a Bible in English. He was condemned as a heretic in 1381, because the Church had not authorized translation of the Bible into vernacular languages, preferring to use the Latin Vulgate. His followers were called Lollards.
1357 David II ransomed Source: ToW
after 1358 Lithuanian Crusade [Teutonic Knights] William Sinclair, Baron of Roslin and father of Prince Henry Sinclair, died in Lithuania, crusading with the Teutonic Knights.
1365 King Peter's Crusade ``Peter of Lusignan, King of Cyprus, wishing to wage a good and profitable Crusade, departed with a great fleet and sacked Alexandria in Egypt.'' The future Prince Henry Sinclair. is with him, having joined at the instigation of Carlo Zeno of Venice.
1371, 22 Jan Robert II, the Steward King Robert II Stuart crowned King of Scots
1371, 22 Feb David II d. King of Scots dies.
1380 Charles VI, the Beloved King of France
1380, 17 Nov No Taxes French King Charles VI declared no taxes forever. Source:
1376 Speaker First recorded Speaker of the House of Commons chosen.
1376, 8 Jun Edward III d. King of England dies.
1377, 22 Feb Parliament votes in Poll Tax
1377, 16 Jul Richard II King of England
1379 New College, Oxford founded
1375, 30 June Haakon removes Henry's administrators King Haakon VI of Norway removes Henry Sinclair's administrators of Orkney.
1379, 2 Aug Earl Henry King Haakon VI of Norway installs Henry Sinclair as Earl of Orkney.
1379, 22 Dec Blockade of Chioggia Venetians organized by Admiral Carlo Zeno, the Lion, sink obstructions to blockade Genoese and allies at Chioggia.
1380, 1 Jan Battle of Chioggia Admiral Carlo Zeno, the Lion, organizes returning Venetian galley fleet in final battle of the War of Chioggia defeating the Genoese.
1381 Wat Tyler died
1381, Jun The Peasants Revolt
1381, 12 Jun Riots in London over Poll Tax
1384 John Wycliffe d.
1384 First English Bible produced
1396 Peace of Paris Clais and Gascony to England
1388, 5 Aug Otterburn Earl James Douglas invades England, defeats Henry Percy ``Hotspur,'' is killed. Source: ToW
1399 Duchy of Lancaster merged with the Crown when the Duke of Lancater became King Henry IV.
1399, 30 Sep Richard II deposed King of England deposed.
1399, 13 Oct Henry IV King of England
1390, 19 Apr Robert II d. King of Scots dies.
1390, 20 Apr Robert III King of Scots
1398 Prince Henry's Voyage Prince Henry Sinclair sailed to the New World.
1398, 2 June Prince Henry Lands Prince Henry Sinclair and crew land at Chadebucto Bay, Nova Scotia and call it Trin harbour, after the day of the Trinity.
1399 Prince Henry Prince Henry Sinclair in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
1400, 14 Jan Richard II murdered King of England murdered at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire. Source: The Oxford Companion to British History 1997 Oxford also published in New York ISBN 0-19-866176-2
1403 King of Mann John Stanley becomes 'King of Mann' and starts the Earls of Derby's association with the island.
1400 Prince Henry k. Prince Henry Sinclair killed by English at Kirkwall.
1402, 14 Sep Homildon Hill Earl of Douglas invades England; defeated by Percy.
1406 James I Captured by English.
1406- 1420 Robert Regent Source: Mackie
1406, 4 Apr Robert III d. King of Scots dies.
1415 John Huss Executed in Bohemia.
1418, 29 May Burgundians take Paris Dauphin escapes Source: ToW
1420.0521 France rec. Henry V as regent Source: ToW
1422 Henry VI King of France King of England becomes King of France Source: ToW
1425 Joan of Arc rallies Charles VII
1413, 20 Mar Henry IV d. King of England dies.
1413, 21 Mar Henry V King of England
1415, 25 Oct Agincourt Henry V of England defeats the French on St. Crispin's Day.
1422, 31 Aug Henry V d. King of England dies.
1422, 1 Sep Henry VI King of England
1406, 5 Apr James I King of Scots.
1410 St.Andrew's University the oldest Scottish University is founded
1411 Harlaw Earl of Mar defeats Donald and English Source: ToW
1420- 1424 Murdoch Regent Source: Mackie
1424 James I returns King of Scots allowed to return.
1429, 7 May B. Orleans Joan of Arc def. English Source: ToW
1429, July Charles VII, the Victorious crowned King of France Source: ToW
1430, 23 May English capt. Joan Joan of Arc captured at Compiegne Source: ToW
1431, 30 May Joan of Arc Burned at the stake in Rouen. Source: ToW
1436, Apr French take Paris Source: ToW
1427 Lincoln College, Oxford founded
1438 All Souls College, Oxford founded
1440 Viscount Creation of the first Viscount (Viscount Beaumont)
1441 Eton College Founded by King Henry VI
1441 King's College, Cambridge Founded by King Henry VI
1436 Roxburgh James I defeated Source: ToW
1437, 20 Feb James I assassinated at Perth.
1437, 22 Feb James II of the Fiery Face King of Scots
1450 French retake Normandy Source: ToW
c1450 Gutenberg's press Invention of moveable type printing press.
1451, 7 Jan University of Glasgow founded. by Pope Nicholas V.
1453, May 29 Turks take Constantinople Constantinople fell to the Turks After a siege lasting weeks; the forces of Mehmed II at last breached the walls that had stood impenetrable for more than a thousand years, and the city fell. With the Fall of Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) ended, and with it the last piece of Rome after 2000 years. This caused a revival of Greek language and literature in the west, due to refugees fleeing to Venice and elsewhere. This in turn led to a revival of biblical scholarship, which was one of the contributing factors to the Reformation.
1453, 19 Oct English driven out of all France except Calais
1441, 24 June Eton Henry VI founds Eton College
1453, Aug Henry VI unstable English King becomes mentally unstable.
1455 Wars of the Roses begin
1455, 22 May First Battle of Saint Albans the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Saint Albans occurred when Richard, Duke of York became convinced that the king's wife, Margaret of Anjou, was plotting his destruction with Edmund Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset. Somerset was killed and King Henry VI captured.
1457, Jan 28 Henry VII b. future King of England born.
1446 Rosslyn Chapel founded By William Sinclair, third and last Sinclair Prince of Orkney.
1450, 21 Sep Rosslyn Chapel dedicated as The Collegiate Church of St Matthew. The Chapel was re-consecrated during its actual building; there is a Papal Bull issued to that effect. The old church of St Matthew was a much smaller church and was already falling into ruin on commencement of the new one. The family had another small Chapel within Rosslyn Castle.
Source: Mrs. Judith Fisken, former Curator of Rosslyn Chapel
1455, 28 Aug Sinclair Earl of Caithness William Sinclair, still Earl of Orkney, also granted Earldom of Caithness Under Scottish law.
1456 James II raids Northumberland Source: ToW
1461 Louis XI, the Cruel King of France
1458 Magdalen College, Oxford founded
1459, 23 Sep Battle of Blore Heath
1460, 10 Jul Battle of Northampton
1460, 31 Dec Battle of Wakefield
1460, 31 Dec Battle of Wakefield
1460- 1488 James III recovers Scottish lands from England Source: ToW
c1460 Order of the Thistle instituted in Scotland by King James III of Scotland
1460, 3 Aug James II takes Roxburgh is killed. Source: ToW
1460, 4 Aug James III King of Scots
1460, 10 Aug James III Coronation as King of Scots
1461, 2 Feb Battle of Mortimer's Cross
1461, 2 Feb Battle of Mortimer's Cross
1461, 16 Feb Battle of St Albans 2
1461, 16 Feb Battle of St Albans 2
1461, 29 Mar Battle of Towton
1461, 29 Mar Battle of Towton
1461, 27 Jun Henry VI deposed King of England deposed.
1461, 28 Jun Edward IV King of England
1470, 11 Oct Henry VI flees to The Hague
1471, 14 Apr Battle of Barnet
1469 Shetland becomes part of Scotland
1476 Inca Empire
1483 Charles VIII, the Affable King of France
1471, 14 May Battle of Tewkesbury
c1475 muzzle-loading rifle invented.
1478 Canterbury Tales William Caxton publishes Chaucer's book.
1479 Black Death, again
1483, 9 Apr Edward IV d. King of England dies.
1482 Albany and Gloucester take Berwick and Edinburgh Source: ToW
1483, 10 Apr Edward V King of England
1483, 26 Jun Edward V deposed. King of England deposed.
1483, 27 Jun Richard III Crookback King of England
1483, Oct Edward V executed with his brother in the Tower of London
1485, 7 Aug Henry Tudor lands at Milford Haven
1485, 22 Aug Battle of Bosworth Field
1485, 22 Aug Wars of the Roses end
1485, 23 Aug Henry VII Tudor King of England
1486, Jan 16 Henry VII m. Elizabeth Marriage of Henry Tudor and Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV King of England
1487, 16 Jun Battle of Stoke
1488, Jun 11 James III murdered at Sauchieburn.
1488, Jun 12 James IV King of Scots
1492 Christopher Columbus
1492 Columbus The Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada, the last Muslim kingdom in Spain, expelled the Jews, and sent Columbus to America.
1492, 11 Aug Pope Alexander VI Spaniard Rodrigo de Borja proclaimed pope Alexander VI. He has been charged with corruption, including the buying out of church officials to obtain the papacy, he did adopt a policy of tolerance and respect towards Jews.
1493 Hispaniola
1497, 18 Nov Bartholomew Dias discovers Cape of Good Hope
1489 First pound coin minted
1491, 28 Jun Henry VIII b. future King of England
1492, 5 Dec Columbus discovers Hispaniola
1492, 6 Dec Haiti discovered by Columbus
1497 John Cabot claims Newfoundland
1495 Aberdeen University established
1495, 1 June Scotch Whisky 1st written record of Scotch Whisky appears in Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, Friar John Cor is the distiller
1497 Syphilis breaks out in Scotland
1498, 23 May Girolamo Savonarola executed Domenican friar and reformer in Florence. Angered Pope Alexander VI and the Duke of Milan. Governed Florence briefly in the form of a democratic republic. Viciously persecuted, tried, tortured, and sentenced to death by papal commissioners on fabricated evidence.
1500 Brazil discovered
1500, May 29 Dias d. Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias (or Diaz), led the first European expedition to arrive to the Cape of Good Hope, drowned today as a storm destroyed four of his ships. Dias had the East Indies as destination. His expedition was nearing the Cape of Good Hope. Dias arrived at Mossel Bay, South Africa, in 1488, where today stands the Dias museum.
1509, 10 July John Calvin b.
1513 Ponce de Leon Fla.
1498, 31 July Columbus sights La Trinidad Christopher Columbus, on his third voyage to the New World, first sighted the island he called La Trinidad. Upon his return to Spain, he told the King about the island -- describing it as very lush and pleasant. Spain ruled Trinidad and nearby Tobago until 1797, Britain took over. Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962.
1509, 21 Apr Henry VII d. King of England dies.
1509, 22 Apr Henry VIII King of England
1509, 24 June Henry & Catherine crowned King Henry the Eighth and Catherine of Aragon were crowned.
1501 Holyroodhouse Palace built.
1503 James IV m. Margaret Tudor d. Henry VII of England
1512 Auld Alliance renewed Residents of France and Scotland become citizens of both countries.
1513, 9 Sep Battle of Flodden Field Many killed, including James IV, George Sinclair of Keiss, William Sinclair, second Earl of Caithness.
1513, 10 Sep James V King of Scots
1515 Francis I, of Angouleme King of France
1516, Jan 23 Ferdinand d. King of Aragon and father of Catherine of Aragon dies at Madrigalejo.
1517, 31 Oct Lutheran Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses opposing indulgences and other defects he perceived in the Catholic religion to the door of the church in Wittenberg, in Saxony; the beginning of the Lutheran Church and of the Reformation.
1519 Cortez invades Mexico
1520, 28 Nov Magellan begins crossing Pacific Ocean
1513, 21 Sep James V Coronation. He is a child, so regents rule.
c1514 John Knox b. born a farmer in Haddington. His mother was a Sinclair.
1520, 10 Dec Martin Luther refuses to recant publicly burned papal edict demanding that he recant
1523 Guatemala
1525 Anabaptists or Mennonites founded in Switzerland. They were called Anabaptists by their enemies, because they rebaptised members who had previously been baptised as infants. They were violently persecuted to the death. One of their few leaders who died naturally was Menno Simons, from whom they took the name Mennonites.
1530 de Vaca & de Narvaez disc. La.
1530 Brazil settled
1524 Verazanno Carolina to Nova Scotia
1530, 29 Nov Cardinal Thomas Wolsey d. Adviser to England's King Henry VIII. Cardinal and statesman who dominated the government of England's King Henry VIII from 1515 to 1529. His unpopularity contributed, upon his downfall, to the anticlerical reaction that was a factor in the English Reformation. The immediate cause of Wolsey's fall from power was his failure to persuade Pope Clement VII to grant Henry an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. There had long been a party of nobles who hated the lowborn, overbearing cardinal. When his final attempt to obtain the annulment collapsed in July 1529, these enemies easily turned the king against him. In October Wolsey was indicted on a praemunire charge of having overstepped his legatine authority. Stripped of all his offices and preferments except York, he left London for York in April 1530. Nevertheless, Henry was led to believe that he was conspiring to recover his position. Wolsey was arrested on November 4 on charges of treason (for corresponding with the French court), but he died at the end of the month while on his way to face the king.
1524, Dec 8 Mary Stuart b. Future Queen of Scots
1528 James V Personal rule.
1529, May 18 Battle of Summerdale Sinclairs of Caithness v. Sinclairs of Orkney; John Sinclair, third Earl of Caithness, dies.
1531 Pizarro invades Peru
1535 Lima Peru
1536 New Granada (Colombia)
1536 Geneva Geneva Council
1534 Church of England Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy that made the monarch of England (then Henry VIII) head of the English Church. Henry had formerly been a strong critic of Luther, and had been given the title Defender of the Faith by the Pope. When the Pope would not grant him a divorce, he changed his opinions.
1535 Jacques Cartier on the St. Lawrence
1535 15 Jan Henry VIII primate King declares himself head of English Church.
1535 15 Jan Henry VIII primate King declares himself head of English Church.
1536 Henry VIII m. Jane Seymour
1540 Hernando de Soto in Georgia
1540 Chile
1542 Cabrillo disc. Calif.
1542, 21 July Sanctum Officium Anti-Protestant Inquisition began.
1547 Henry II King of France
1536, 18 July No Pope in England Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese B 29 Feb 1468 d 10 Nov 1549) and sucessors authority declared void in England
1542, 24 Aug Battle of Haddon Rigg near Kelso.
1543, 12 July Henry VIII m. Catherine Parr. King Henry the VIII marries last wife (no.6), Catherine Parr.
1547, Jan 28 Henry VIII d. King of England dies.
1547, Jan 28 Edward VI King of England
1542, 24 Nov Battle of Solway Moss James V grants command to Oliver Sinclair, who loses to the English.
1542, 14 Dec James V d. King of Scots dies at Falkland, Fife.
1542, Dec 15 Mary Queen of Scots Mary Stuart
1543- 1559.1231 Mary of Guise Regent of Scotland Source: Mackie
1543, 9 Sep Mary Queen of Scots Coronation.
1547, Jan 31 Edward Seymour, Lord Protector Earl of Hertford
1547, Feb 20 Edward VI crowned King of England at Westminster.
1553, 27 June Christ Hospital Chartered
1553, 6 Jul Edward VI d. King of England dies.
1553, 10 July Queen Jane Queen of England for nine days.
1548, 10 Sep Pinkie Somerset defeats Scots Source: ToW
1550 English withdraw Forced by French & Scots Source: ToW
1558 Calais reclaimed from England
1553, 19 July Mary I, Tudor, Bloody Mary Queen of England.
1553, 3 Aug Mary I crowned Queen of England.
1554 Mary I m. Philip II of Spain Wyatt's Rebellion
1557, 1 Sep Jacques Cartier d. French explorer dies at St Malo, Normandy, France. —
1558, 7 Nov Mary I d. Queen of England dies.
1557 The First Covenant It was secret.
1558 Mary Stuart becomes Queen of France by marrying the dauphin Francois II.
1559 Francis II King of France
1559 Calvinists John Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion. Calvin strongly influenced the Puritans, Presbyterians, and others.
1560 Charles IX King of France
1562- 98 Huguenot (Protestant) revolts throughout France.
1562- 1598 Huguenot revolts
1558, 17 Nov Elizabeth I ascends English throne upon death of Queen Mary
1559 Puritan Some people were first called Puritans. They were a movement or people of like mind who wanted to purify the Christian religion. There was no separate Puritan church as such. They tended to stay in their church of origin unless they were ejected, as often happened, after which they tended to become Presbyterians or Congregationalists.
1559, 16 Jan Elizabeth I Elizabeth Tudor crowned as Queen of England. Source: Oxford Companion
1559, May 2 John Knox returns to Scotland
1560 Presbyterian John Knox founded the Presbyterian Church.
1560 Feb Leith Scots defeat French Source: ToW
1560, 06 July French withdraw Treaty of Edinburgh Source: ToW
1561, Aug 19 Mary, widowed returns to Scotland, lands at Leith.
1564, 27 May John Calvin d.
1565 San Agostin (St. Augustine, Fla.)
1566 Santa Catalina de Guale (Ga.); Santa Elena (Parriss Island, S.C.)
1565 Mary m. Darnley Queen of Scots marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
1566, 19 Jun James VI b. future King of Scots born, Edinburgh Castle, Scotland.
1567 Mary m. her cousin James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, murderer of her husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
1567- 1587 James w. Regents Source: Mackie
1567, 10 Feb Darnley murdered Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, father of the future King James VI, is murdered.
1568, July 13 bottled beer The Dean of Old St Paul's Cathedral, London perfected the bottling of beer. —
1568, July 13 bottled beer The Dean of Old St Paul's Cathedral, London perfected the bottling of beer.
1567, 19 June Mary imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots, imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
1567, 23 June Mary kidnapped Mary Queen of Scots, kidnapped.
1567, 24 July Mary abdicates Mary, Queen of Scots, forced to abdicate
1567, 29 July James VI King of Scots
1568 Mary Stuart escapes to England
1572 Jesuits withdraw from Fla.
1572 Massacres of Huguenots the French state massacred many Huguenots.
1572, 18 July Wiliam of Orange Wiliam of Orange (William III) recognized as viceroy of Holland/Friesland/Utrecht
1573 Franciscans in Fla.
1574 Henry III King of France
1570, 23 Jan Earl of Moray assassinated Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland, assassinated; civil war breaks out
1571, Feb 26 Rosslyn Chapel seized in Reformation prebendaries resigned because of the endowments being taken by 'force and violence' into secular hands as the effects of the Reformation took hold.
1572, Nov 24 John Knox d.
1574, 23 Dec Assasination of Charles de Guise. (Plotted by Catharina de Médicis)
1585 Prince Henry excom. Henry of Navarre, future King Henry IV of France
1587 Santa Elena (S.C.) abandoned; missions in Guale (Ga.) & Timucua (Fla.)
1579 Sir Francis Drake claims S.F. Bay
1586 Sir Francis Drake raids Santa Elena Roanoke, Carolina
1588, 29 May Spanish Armada sails The Invincible Armada, led by the Duke of Medina Sedonia, sails.
1588, 19 July Spanish Armada in English Channel Philip II, king of the most powerful nation in Europe and much of the rest of the world, Spain, sent an ``invincible armada'' of 125 ships against his sea-going rival Elizabeth I and her heretical nation of England, intending to convert them to the true Catholic religion. James VI of Scotland allied with Elizabeth in defense. The Duke of Parma was to supply soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands, who were to board the Armada at Calais for transport to Dover to march on London. Sir Francis Drake harrassed the Spaniards at sea. Parma did not appear at Calais.
1581, Jan 28 James VI 2nd confession of faith
1582, Jan 28 John Barclay b. Scottish satirist and poet born.
1582, 9 Sep George Sinclair d. Fourth Earl of Caithness, dies in Edinburgh. Buried at Rosslyn.
1583 University of Edinburgh founded with royal approval by the town council.
1587, 8 Feb Mary Stuart d. Mary Queen of Scots executed in England
1589, 2 Aug Henry III d. King of France dies at Paris, France.
1589, 3 Aug Henry IV of Navarre Bourbon King of France
1593 Henry IV abjures Protestantism
1594 Henry IV, the Great King of France
1598, Apr 13 Edict of Nantes Henry IV of France (and Navarre and before he became King a Protestant himself) approved the Edict of Nantes, tolerating Protestants. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica
1588, 28 July Spanish Armada scattered English fire ships scatter the Invincible Armada.
1588, 29 July Battle of Gravelines Admiral Howard and English ships in 8 hours sink or cripple numerous ships of the Spanish Armada. Duke of Medina Sedonia, turns the Armada north to return to Spain around Scotland and Ireland. Spanish ships were lured onto rocks in Caithness by beacons.
1600 Fort Tadoussac
1600, 31 Dec British East India Company chartered
1600, 31 Dec British East India Company chartered
1588, 19 Jul Spanish Armada sighted off the Lizard; a surviving ship sinks at Tobermory.
1592, Aug 17 Altars of Rosslyn ordered destroyed Oliver St Clair was summoned to appear before the General Assembly and threatened with excommunication if the altars of Rosslyn Chapel remained standing after this date.
1592, Aug 31 Altars of Rosslyn destroyed George Ramsay reported that 'the altars of Roslene were haille demolishit'. From that time the Chapel ceased to be used as a house of prayer and soon fell into disrepair.
1599, Apr 25 Oliver Cromwell b. in Huntingdon, England
1600 Gregorian Scotland Scotland adopts Gregorian Calendar.
1606 western Timucua (Fla.)
1603, Mar 24 Elizabeth I d. Queen of England.
1603, Mar 25 Union of Crowns James VI of Scotland becomes also James I of England; he calls himself King of Great Britain.
1604 Acadia (Nova Scotia)
1604, 16 Jan Hampton Court Conference John Rainolds moves '...that there might bee a newe translation of the Bible.' James VI and I approved the motion the next day.
1605, 5 Nov Guy Fawkes Plot to blow up parliament fails. The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a multifaceted Catholic conspiracy, a part of the counter-reformation, directly known to and tolerated by the leading Jesuits in England. The plot was designed to commit terrorism in England by Guy Fawkes and other Catholics motivated by religious persecution, financial reward and political power. —
1609 Santa Fe N.M.
1610, 14 May Henry IV d. King of France dies at Paris, France.
1610, 15 May Louis XIII, the Just King of France
1607, Apr 26 Virginia Company lands The Virginia Company's 108 settlers first land in Virginia, at Cape Henry, on Chesapeake Bay.
1607, May 13 Jamestown, Virginia Captain John Smith and 105 others, in three ships, landed on what became known as the Virginia coast and started the first permanent English settlement in the New World, which they called Jamestown.
1608 Quebec
1609 Bermuda English
1616, 23 Apr William Shakespeare d.
1612, 26 Aug Battle of Kringellen Regiment of Caithness men led by a Sinclair wiped out in an ambush in Norway.
1619, July 30 Virginia House of Burgesses forms House of Burgesses Virginia forms, 1st elective American governing unit
1619, 4 Dec America's first Thanksgiving Day (Virginia)
1620, July 30 Virginia House of Burgesses meets The House of Burgesses first meeting in Jamestown, Virginia.
1619 slavery introduced (Va.)
1620 Plymouth New England
1623 New Netherlands settled by Dutch
1624 Virginia is crown colony Barbados English
1625, 28 Mar Charles I King of Great Britain.
1625, 27 Mar James VI & I d. Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire, Herts, England.
1630, 15 Nov Johannes Kepler dies astronomer
1633 Apalachee province (Fla.)
1633, 21 June Galileo abjures Galileo Galilei is forced by the Inquisition to "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
1626, 4 Oct Richard Cromwell b. Lord Protector of England (1658-59).
1629 Massachusetts Bay
1630 Boston John Winthrop Source: LR
1630 peak of Puritan emigration to New England [begin]
1632 Maryland
1636 peak of Puritan emigration to New England [end]
1636 Rhode Island settled
1636 Harvard College Source: LR
1636, 28 Oct Harvard founded as Cambridge College in Newtown (Cambridge), by the General Court of Massachusetts.
1637 Pequot War [begin]
1638, Sep 15 Louis Dieu-Donné b. Future king Louis XIV of France born. The epithet means God-Given.
1640, 1 Dec Portugal independent of Spain
1643, 14 May Louis XIII d. King of France dies at Germain-en-Laye, France.
1643, 15 May Louis XIV, the Grand Monarch The Sun King, King of France. He was only five when he became king on the death of his father, Louis XIII. —
1637 Pequot War [end]
1638 Delaware settled by Swedes
1638, Sep 14 John Harvard d. John Harvard, a 31-year-old clergyman from Charlestown, Massachusetts died, leaving his library and half of his estate to a local college. The young minister's bequest allowed the college to firmly establish itself. In honor of its first benefactor, the school adopted the name Harvard College.
1641 Mass. first colony to recognize slavery
1642, 23 Oct Battle of Edge Hill beginning of English Civil War.
1638 Baptist Roger Williams founded the Baptist Church of Christ in Providence, Rhode Island, which was the first Baptist congregation in what became the present-day United States. The first Baptist church in Scotland was Keiss Baptist Church.
1638, 27 Feb First National Covenant in Scotland.
1638, 30 Aug National Covenant, Edinburgh signed in Edinburgh
1639 Covenanters take Edinburgh Source: ToW
1640, 28 Aug Newburn Covenanters defeat English Source: ToW
1643, June 30 Adwalton Moor Yorks Royalists Battle which secured the North for Charles leaving Hull as the only Parliamentary strongpoint. Fairfax, outnumbered 2:1 by Newcastle withdrew.
1643, July 5 Lansdown Hill Avon Major Royalist assault on the Parliamentary position in the West Country. Balanced forces although Parliament used more cavalry. Victory left the Royalists too weak to take Bath, their major objective.
1643, July 13 Roundway Down Wilts Royalists were demoralised despite their victory eight days earlier because of an injury to Hopton, their leader Reinforcements were sent from Oxford as the Parliamentarians laid siege to Devizes where 3,000 of the Royalist force were encamped. In one of the most dramatic battles of the Civil War Royalist Cavalry, tired by a long march attacked Parliamentary horse and foot outnumbering them by 3:1 The loss of the Roundhead Cavalry in the "bloody ditch" marked the end of Parliamentary strength in the West and was the greatest Royalist victory of the civil war.
1644 Rhode Island separate
1644, June 29 Cropredy Bridge Oxon Royalists Battle that settled the fate of Waller's Parliamentary command Within weeks of this encounter his army disintegrated into mutiny and chaos. The King withdrew to Evesham with light casualties.
1644, 01 Jan Scots invade England Source: ToW
1648, 11 Nov Dutch & French agree to divide St Maarten Leeward Islands
1650- 1653 War of the 2nd Fronde Source: ToW
1644, 2 July Battle of Marston Moor
1644, July 2 Marston Moor One of the decisive battles in English history. The long dominance of the King was broken as his Northern Army under Newcastle was destroyed and York was taken. Parliament was strengthened by an alliance with the Scots which explained their preponderance of numbers. Parliament attacked decisively at the end of the day just as the Royalists had decided there was to be no action that afternoon. Cromwell was wounded . . . and nearly 6,000 died in all.
1644, 27 Oct Battle of Newbury
1648, 18 Aug Battle of Preston "The battle in which the army of the Scottish Engagers, invading England under the duke of Hamilton, was cut off from Scotland by Cromwell and completely dispersed in a series of running fights."
1649, 30 Jan Charles I executed Scots and English King Charles I was beheaded in London by order of the English Parliament. The king claimed to rule by divine right and Parliament claimed the right to govern independent of the crown.
1647, Jan 23 Charles I sold Scottish Presbyterians sell captured king back to English Parliament
1648 Charles II takes the Covenant in Scotland.
1649, 31 Jan Charles II King of Great Britain (in name; not in fact until 1660).
1650- 1660.05 English occupation of Scotland.
1650, 02 Sep Dunbar Cromwell defeats Charles I & Scots. Sir William St Clair killed. Source: ToW
1654, 7 June Louis XIV crowned King of France.
1651, 3 Sep Battle of Worcester
1653, 20 Apr Parliament dissolved by Cromwell
1653, 16 Dec Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell
1655 Jamaica captured from Spain
1655, 26 Sep Fort Casimir captured Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Dutch Ft Casimir from Swedish in Delaware. The grand French Renaissance-style chateau on the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 79th Street New York City was. built for a businessman and art collector named Isaac D. Fletcher in 1899, and later home to oil millionaire and scandal-ridden Harry F. Sinclair who sold it Augustus Van Horn Stuyvesant descendant of Peter Stuyvesant. —
1651 Charles II crowned King of Scots at Scone by Covenanters.
1660, May 29 Restoration of Charles II, the Scottish Parliament, and bishops.
1660, 7 June George I b. Future King of Great Britain (May 28 Julian calendar).
1661, 3 Sep Oliver Cromwell d. at Whitehall
1662 Connecticut separate
1664 New Netherlands siezed
1672- 1678 Franco- Dutch War Source: ToW
1673 fortification of Santa Catalina de Guale
1666, 2 Sep Great Fire of London
1670 Bahamas English
1675 King Philip's War [begin]
1675, Aug 10 Greenwich Observatory Established by King Charles II, and its foundation stone laid. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1675, Aug 10 Greenwich Observatory Established by King Charles II, and its foundation stone laid. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1680 Santa Catalina abandoned
1676 King Philip's War [end]
1679 Fort Niagara
1680 Santa Catalina repels British
1682 La Salle disc. Louisiana
1685, 6 Feb Charles II d.
1679, 22 June Battle at Bothwell Bridge Also known as the Battle of Bothwell Brig, on the Clyde. The Duke of Monmouth, the Earl of Linlithgow, and Graham of Claverhouse defeat Scots Covenanters under Balfour of Burleigh and Hackston of Rathillet. Here are three references
1680, 13 July Battle of Altimarlach George Sinclair of Keiss loses the last clan war to Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy.
1685, Oct 18 Edict of Nantes Revoked Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, causing half a million Huguenots to emigrate to England, Prussia, Holland, and America. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica
1685, Nov Huguenots emigrate
1687, 1 Oct Parthenon destroyed in war between Turks & Venetians. —
1690, 12 July Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, at which Protestant William of Orange defeated Catholic James II and VII. The battle actually took place on 1 July, but because of the conversion from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar the day is now commemorated on the 12 July. —
1685, 7 Feb James VII (II of Engl.), a Catholic.
1685, 6 Jul Battle of Sedgemoor in the Monmouth Rebellion.
1688, 11 Dec Glorious Revolution Catholic King James II of England and VII of Scotland was driven from London by an almost-bloodless revolt; succeeded by William and Mary.
1689, 14 Feb William & Mary Protestant monarchs William III (of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland) and Mary II (Stuart, daughter of James II) King & Queen of Great Britain.
1692 Salem Witch Trials
1688, Dec 11 Sack of Rosslyn Chapel Shortly after the protestant William of Orange had landed in England and displaced the Catholic James II, a mob from Edinburgh and some of the villagers from Roslin entered and damaged the Chapel. Their object was to destroy the furniture and vestments, which were now regarded as Popish and idolatrous.
1689 Church of Scotland re-established after Scottish Parliament invites William and Mary.
1689, 28 Jan James II (VII) end King formally ends reign.
1689, July 26 B. of Killiecrankie Viscount Dundee (John Graham of Claverhouse) affectionately known as "Bonnie Dundee" took 2,500 Highlanders over Drumochter Pass.
1689, 21 Aug Battle of Dunkeld See also the stories in heartlander and scotwar.
1693, 8 Aug Champagne Dom Perignon invented champagne.
1694, 28 Dec Queen Mary II d. Kensington Palace, London, England.
1692, 13 Feb Glencoe MacDonalds massacred at Glencoe.
1693, June 14 Foreign Trade Act Scots Parliament passes An Act for Encouraging Foreign Trade. Companies may be formed to trade with any country not at war with the Crown.
1695, May 9 Trading Company Announced At the opening of the fifth session of the Scots Parliament, Lord Tweeddale announces that the King will approve legislation for the establishment of a colony, and the formation of a trading company. William Paterson's draft for such an Act is carried to Scotland by James Chiesly.
1695, June 15 Darien Company Bill The Bill is first brought before the Estates and referred to the Committee for Trade.
1695, June 26 Darien Company Royal Assent Lord Tweeddale touches the Act with the sceptre and gives it the Royal Assent.
1696 Pensacola founded
1695, Aug 29 Darien Company First Meeting First regular meeting of "the gentlemen concerned with the Company" in London.
1695, Nov 13 Darien Company Subscription Book Subscription book for the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies is opened in London. Entire issue of £300,000 is subscribed.
1695, Dec 3 Scots Act debated in House of Lords.
1695, Dec 5 Darien Directors summoned by Lords London Directors of the Company are ordered to appear before the Lords.
1695, Dec 17 Protest against Darien Company Lords and Commons go to the King, presenting an Address of protest against the Scots Company. William III declares himself "ill-served in Scotland".
1696, Jan Impeachment of English Darien Directors The London Directors have been examined by a Committee of the House of Commons. The House demands their impeachment. Subscribers withdraw and the English venture collapses. William Paterson leaves for Scotland.
1696, Feb 26 Scottish Subscription Book The Company opens a Subscription Book in Edinburgh. Proposed capital for Scotland to be £400,000. A rush to take up stock.
1696, July 23 Paterson to Company Paterson hands over to the Company all his papers relating to Darien. Proposes a trading entrep6t on the Isthmus of Panama.
1696, Aug l Darien Subscription completed Subscription Books are closed. The proposed capital had been reached, and the first call upon it made.
1696, Oct Darien Hamburg Subscription Paterson leaves to open a Subscription Book in Hamburg. James Smith embezzles money entrusted to him by Paterson.
1697, Jan Darien Dutch subscription fails Paterson still in Amsterdam with Erskine and Haldane. Fail to interest Dutch merchants in the Company.
1697, Feb Darien people to Hamburg Paterson and Erskine leave for Hamburg.
1697, Apr Darien Hamburg subscription fails Final efforts to open a Subscription Book in Hamburg are defeated by Sir Paul Rycaut, English Resident.
1697, Sep Paterson stripped of office Paterson is examined by a special committee of the Company. He is exonerated, and acquitted of complicity in Smith's embezzlement, but is stripped of office in the Company.
1697, Nov Darien fleet assembles The Company's fleet assembles in the Forth: Caledonia, Saint Andrew and the Unicorn, joined later by the Endeavour and the Dolphin.
1698, Jan Darien ships equipped to June; Ships are equipped and loaded. Councifiors, officers and Planters selected.
1698 Darien Expedition Scots attempt settlement in Panama.
1698, July 14 Darien expedition sails The first expedition sails from Leith, anchors at Kirkcaldy.
1698, July 19 Darien fleet sails north Fleet sails northward from Kirkcaldy.
1698, Aug 26 Darien fleet at Madeira All the ships have arrived safely at Madeira.
1698, Sep 2 Darien fleet leaves Madeira Fleet leaves Madeira.
1698, Sep 28 Darien fleet in West Indies. First landfall in the West Indies.
1698, Oct 3 Darien takes Crab Council takes possession of Crab Island in the name of the Company.
1698, Oct 7 Darien fleet to Darien Fleet sails from Carb Island for Darien.
1698, Oct 19 Alexander Sinkler sails Alexander Sinkler, my 7th great-grandfather, after leaving his home in Glasgow, sailed from Liverpool aboard the ship "Ye Loyalty", commanded by Captain Henry Browne, to the Virginia colony on an indenture for four years to John Scott, said to be a cousin. Quickly he became a wealthy tobacco farmer. Alexander was the ancestor of several list members. —Stanley St. Clair Source: Liverpool List of Emigrants to America, 1697 to 1706 by John Elton, 28 January 1901; VIrginia tobacco grower lists, various years; census records; well known Sinclair researcher and Alexander descendant, Jean Grigsby.
1698, Nov 2 Darien fleet in Darien First landing in Caledonia Bay.
1698, Nov 5 Darien sick ashore Sick are put ashore in Darien. More men land to clear the ground and build huts.
1698, Nov 15 Richard Long in Darien Arrival of Richard Long in the Rupert.
1698, Dec 4 Darien friendship Treaty of friendship with Captain Andreas.
1698, Dec 11 Maurepas in Darien Arrival of the Maurepas.
1699 Fort Maurepas (Biloxi, Miss.)
1698, Dec 28 Darien Colony The settlement declared a Colony of the Company of Scotland.
1698, Dec 29 Darien Colony reports Alexander Hamilton leaves for Scotland with dispatches, journals etc. Major Cunningham also leaves the Colony.
1699, Jan Spanish plan against Darien The Barliavento Fleet anchors at Portobello. Spanish Governors consider steps to drive out the Scots.
1699, Jan Dispatch wrecked The Dispatch leaves Leith with supplies, is wrecked on the coast of Islay.
1699, Feb 5 Dolphin wrecked The Dolphin, with Robert Pinkerton aboard, is driven into Carthagena, strikes a rock and is taken by the Spanish.
1699, Feb 6 Montgomerie's skirmish. The Conde de Canillas, President of Panama, abandons his attack on the Colony.
1699, Mar 11 Darien protests The Council sends Lieutenant Maghie to Carthagena to protest against the imprisonment of Pincarton and his crew.
1699, Mar 25 AH in Edinburgh Alexander Hamilton arrives in Edinburgh.
1699, Apr 10 Mackay dispatches Daniel Mackay leaves the Colony with dispatches for Edinburgh.
1699, Apr 21 Other dispatches Robert Jolly, James Montgomerie and William Murdoch leave the Colony.
1699, May More Darien ships sail The Olive Branch and the Hopeful Binning sail from the Clyde with provisions and 800 men and women.
1699, May 18 Darien Council prepares to abandon Colony hears of the English Proclamations against the Colony. The Council prepares to abandon the settlement.
1699, June 22 Darien abandoned Caledonia is totally abandoned except for six sick men.
1699, July Endeavour sinks The Endeavour is sunk soon after leaving Caledonia. The Saint Andrew reaches Jamaica.
1699, Aug 4 Caledonia at NY The Caledonia reaches New York.
1699, Aug 14 Unicorn at NY The Unicorn reaches New York.
1699, Aug 18 Darien II Second expedition sails from the Clyde, anchors again in Rothesay Bay, waiting for a favourable wind.
1699, Sep 22 Mackay returns Daniel Mackay leaves Edinburgh for the Clyde to join the second expedition. There have been rumours of the desertion of the Colony which he denies as ridiculous.
1699, Sep 23 Darien II leaves Scotland Second expedition sails without waiting for Mackay or extra provisions.
1699, Oct 9 Darien desertion confirmed Rumours of the desertion are now confirmed by letters from New York.
1699, Oct 12 Caledonia sails The Caledonia sails from New York. Alexander Campbell of Fonab leaves Scotland for England, where he is to find a ship that will take him to the Caribbean and the Colony. The Council-General of the Company agrees to ask Parliament to send an Address to the King, asking for his protection. Also send one in the name of the Company. Daniel Mackay leaves for the Colony on the Speedy Return.
1699, Nov 21 Caledonia at the Clyde The Caledonia reaches the Clyde.
1699, Nov 30 Darien II arrives The second expedition arrives at the settlement. Finds Thomas Drummond there with two sloops.
1699, Dec 4 Darien Council meets Meeting of the Council and all officers.
1699, Dec 5 Darien to Jamaica Agree to send 500 men and all the women to Jamaica.
1699, Dec 12 King disapproves of Darien The King expresses his disapproval of all Addresses to him, and orders his Privy Council in Scotland to make his displeasure known.
1699, Dec 20 Alexander Campbell hanged for mutiny.
1699, Dec 21 Thomas Drummond arrested by Byres and held a prisoner aboard the Duke of Hamilton.
1700, Jan 10 King intervenes for Darien The King agrees to ask Spain for the release of the Dolphin's crew. Robert Tumbull returns to the Colony from a visit to the Indians with reports of an imminent Spanish attack.
1700, Feb 7 Byres deserts the Darien Colony.
1700, Feb 11 Arrival of Campbell of Fonab at Darien.
1700, Feb 15 Battle of Toubacanti Fonab defeats the Spaniards at Toubacanti.
1700, Feb 23 Spanish ships appear off the mouth of the harbour at Caledonia.
1700, Feb 27 Thomas Drummond leaves the Darien Colony.
1700, Mar 1 Don Melchor de Guevara lands to the east of the Isthmus of Panama, drives back a Scottish attack.
1700, Mar 3 Don Juan Pimienta lands at the Isthmus of Panama with more men. He invites the Scots to surrender, and when they refuse, moves forward against the neck of the peninsula.
1700, Mar 5 The Margaret leaves Scotland with provisions and supplies for the Colony. Patrick Macdowall, supercargo, carries letters.
1700, Mar 18 Spanish cross the ditch at the neck and advance on the fort of Darien. The Council ask for terms.
1700, Mar 22 Darien truce ends Truce ended and the fighting continues.
1700, Mar 25 Darien addresses King In London, four members of the Council-General of the Company present an Address to the King. He tells them he has said all there is to say on the matter of the Company's grievances.
1700, Mar 30 Pimienta offers to treat with the Scots of Darien again.
1700, Mar 31 Articles of Capitulation of Darien are signed. The Scots have two weeks to leave with their ships, guns and supplies.
1700, Apr 1 Thomas Drummond returns to the Darien Colony.
1700, 1 Apr Darien fails Scottish colony in Panama fails.
1700, Apr 12 Darien II abandoned The Colony is abandoned for the second time. Pimienta takes possession of it. The Hope of Bo'ness sails to Carthagena. Her master surrenders the ship to the Spanish.
1700, May Darien ships in Jamaica The Rising Sun, Duke of Hamilton, and Hope reach Jamaica and anchor off Blewfields.
1700, May 24 Darien address rebuffed The Scots Parliament assembles but the Duke of Queensberry, Commissioner, prevents the Company's party from pressing for an Address to the King. He adjourns Parliament on the 30th.
1700, June 20 Toubacanti rioting News of the victory at Toubacanti reaches Edinburgh. Rioting breaks out, mob in control of the city that night.
1700, June 28 Darien desertion news Letter from New York informs the Company of the desertion of the second Colony.
1700, July 21 Darien ships leave Jamaica.
1700, July 22 Hope wrecked The Hope is wrecked soon afterwards off the coast of Cuba.
1700, Aug 14 Rising Sun dismasted The Rising Sun dismasted in a gale in the Gulf of Florida, sails on northwards.
1700, Aug 20/24 Darien ships in Charleston The Duke of Hamilton and the Rising Sun reach Charleston in Carolina.
1700, Sep 3 Duke of Hamilton and Rising Sun sunk at Charleston by a hurricane.
1700, Sep 20 Pinkerton released from prison in Seville with three other prisoners.
1701 Mobile Bay
1701, 9 Oct Yale Collegiate School of Connecticut, chartered in New Haven aka Yale.
1702, 8 Mar William & Mary end end of reign of William III and Mary II.
1702, 9 Mar Queen Anne of Great Britain
1702, 19 Mar William III d. Kensington Palace, England. King of Great Britain dies.
1700, Oct 29 Darien fights in Parliament Scottish Parliament reassembles. Company's party begins its fight to declare Darien a legal settlement, and entitled to Parliament's protection.
1701 James III and VIII Louis XIV recognizes James III as King of Scotland, Ireland, & England.
1701, May African trade The Speedy Return and the Content are sent to trade on the African coast.
1701, 6 Sep James II d. St. Germain-en-Laye, France.
1704 Spanish fall back on St. Augustine
1703 Kaskaskia (Ill.)
1704 Delaware proprietary colony
1703 Speedy Return and Content wrecked Late in the year the Speedy Return and the Content, now in the hands of the pirate John Bowen, are destroyed off the Malabar Coast.
1704, Jan 31 Annandale seized The Company's chartered ship, the Annandale is seized in the Downs at the instigation of the East India Company.
1704, Aug 12 Worcester seized The Worcester is seized in Leith Road as a reprisal for the taking of the Annandale.
1705, Apr 11 Green hanged Thomas Green, captain of the Worcester, is hanged on Leith Sands with his mate and gunner, having been found guilty of pirating the Speedy Return.
1707, 16 Jan Union of Parliaments Scottish Parliament voted union with the English Parliament. Alexander 9th Earl of Caithness was against it and was the last surviving peer of the Scottish Parliament. No Scottish Parliament would meet again until 1999.
1715, 1 Sep Louis XIV d. King of France and Canada dies at Versailles, France, of gangrene. His 72-year reign is the longest in European history. The regency, confided to his mother, Anne of Austria, was marked by a period of rebellion known as the Fronde (1648-1653), led first by the nobility and later by the urban commoners. In 1660, Louis XIV married Maria Theresa, Infanta of Spain. , on the death of his godfather and prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, the 23-year-old monarch announced that he himself would govern. He convening a council on a daily basis, from which he excluded grand nobles, surrounding himself instead with ministers. The first twenty years of the king's personal reign were the most brilliant. With his minister Colbert, he carried out the administrative and financial reorganization of the kingdom, as well as the development of trade and manufacturing. With the Marquis de Louvois, he reformed the army and achieved military victories. Louis encouraged an extraordinary blossoming of culture: theatre (Molière and Racine), music (Lully), architecture, painting, sculpture, and all the sciences (founding of the royal academies). These accomplishments are depicted on the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors. Marie Mancini, Louise de la Vallière, Madame de Montespan and others found their way to the king's bed. He organized extraordinary festivities To please his harlots. Royal love affairs yielded many offspring, whom Louis XIV either legitimized or betrothed to other members of the royal family. —
1715, 2 Sep Louis XV King of France
1713 Nova Scotia & Newfoundland British
1714, 1 Aug Queen Anne d. Kensington Palace, London, England.
1714, 2 Aug George I Elector of Hanover becomes King of Britain.
1707, May 1 Company of Scotland dissolved The Treaty of Union of the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England takes effect. By Article XV, the Company of Scotland is dissolved.
1708 Old Pretender James VIII (III) (the Old Pretender) turned back by storms. Source: Mackie
1715 Sep 6 First Jacobite rising Earl of Mar raises standard of James III, Braes of Mar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
1715, Nov 12 Battle of Sheriffmuir Earl of Mar vs. Duke of Argyll; indecisive. David Sinclair of Brabsterdorran fights for Jacobite cause.
1715, 14 Nov Battle of Preston The Old Pretender, James VIII (III) defeated.
1718 military gov. in Texas
1718 New Orleans founded
1718 Franco- Spanish Gulf War [begin]
1719, 31 Dec John Flamsteed 1st Astronomer Royal dies at 73
1719, 31 Dec John Flamsteed 1st Astronomer Royal dies at 73
1720 Franco- Spanish Gulf War [end]
1715, 22 Dec Old Pretender at Peterhead James Stuart, the Old Pretender, arrived at Peterhead.
1715.09- 1716.02 The '15 Scotland rises for the Old Pretender.
1719 Jacobite attempt another one fails. Source: Mackie
1720, Dec 31 Charles Edward Stuart b. The Young Pretender
1729, July 30 Baltimore Baltimore founded
1733, July 30 Freemasons in U.S. Society of Freemasons opens 1st American lodge Boston Mass.
1734, 17 Nov John Peter Zenger newspaper editor arrested for libel against NY colonial governor; he was acquitted.
1727 George II King of Britain.
1732, 19 Dec Poor Richard's Almanack Benjamin Frankin begins publication.
1738 The Great Awakening Methodist evangelist George Whitefield travelled from Georgia to New England, starting the Great Awakening in his wake.
1738, May 24 Methodists Former Georgia Anglican minister John Wesley underwent a religious conversion at Aldersgate Chapel in London initiating what would become known as the Methodist Church.
1738, 4 June George III b. Future King of Britain born.
1733- 1740 The Church Secession in Scotland. Source: Mackie
1734, 28 Dec Rob Roy MacGregor died.
1736 Rosslyn Chapel windows glaze St James St Clair glazed the windows for the first time, repaired the roof, and relaid the floor with flagstones. The boundary wall was also built at this time.
1736, Jan 19 James Watt b.
1741, 27 Dec Prussian forces took Olmutz Czechoslovakia
1739 British War of Jenkin's Ear Fla.
1741 Bering disc. Alaska
1739 Clearances begin MacDonald of Sleat and Macleod of Dunvegan sell selected Clan members as indentured servants to the Carolinas.
1745- 1746.0416 The Forty-Five Scotland rises for Bonnie Prince Charlie (The Young Pretender).
1745, 22 June Charlie sails Bonnie Prince Charles set sails for Scotland.
1745, 20 Aug Charlie at Blair In the 1745 Jacobite revolt, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle today and remained overnight, on his way south after landing at Glenfinnan. The Goverment army occupied the castle in 1746 as the Jacobite revolt came to its forgone conclusion. The Jacobites under Lord George Murray, lay siege to Blair in what was the last castle siege in Britain.

Queen Victoria visited Blair in 1844. She presented the 200 Athollmen who formed the royal bodyguard with regimental colours. They are now the only private army in Europe. Source: <>

1745, 21 Sep Battle of Prestonpans .
1745, Nov 8 Charlie invades Prince Charles Edward Stewart invades England
1745, 5 Dec Retreat from Derby Prince Charlie retreats towards Scotland.
1745, 6 Dec Charles Edward Stewart's entry into Derby
1745, 18 Dec B. of Clifton Moor
1745, 20 Dec The Highland army crosses the Esk Returning from England to Scotland.
1746, 17 Jan Falkirk II Prince Charles Edward Stuart defeated by English.
1746 Apr Culloden deportations After Culloden, some Highlanders are sent to the Caribbean as slaves.
1746, 16 Apr Culloden Prince Charles Edward Stuart defeated at Culloden. Sir James Sinclair of Rosslyn, a Major General and Colonel of The Royal Scots on Hanovarian side. About 500 Caithness Sinclairs were about to join the Jacobite cause, but Alexander 9th Earl of Caithness supported the Hanovarians.
1747 Abolition of Heritable Jurisdictions Act Highland landowners must accept English jurisdiction or forfeit their lands. Many of them move to London.
1747, 17 Apr Act of Proscription passed To take effect in August.
1751 Encyclopedia
1752, 1 Nov All Saints' Day the Feast of All Saints is a day to remember the glories of Heaven.
1751, 3 June blunt lightning rods The King was right. George III decreed that all royal residences have blunt tips on their lighting rods. American inventor and patriot Benjamin Franklin advocate of independence invented the lightning rod with a pointed tip in 1749. The King was piqued because of the Americans espousal of independence. Charles Moore, retired atmospheric physicist of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology for seven years tested lighting rods and found that a 19mm blunt end rod was most effective.
1752, 2 Sep Last UK Julian Day
1752, 14 Sep First UK Gregorian Day
1752, 5 Nov Guy Fawkes Day Preparations for Guy Fawkes Day and Bonfire Night celebrations include making the effigies, or "guys" that will be burned on the bonfire. In some parts of Great Britain, children keep up an old tradition by walking in the streets, carrying the "guy" and beg passers by for "a penny for the guy." Bonfire Night is celebrated all over the United Kingdom the effigies are placed on top of the bonfire, which is then set alight; and fireworks displays fill the sky. —
1753, 8 Aug Mason George Washington George Washington aged 21 became a master mason. Masons in the 18th century espoused liberal democratic principles that included religious tolerance, loyalty to local government, and the importance of charity and political compromise. ``Flattering as it may be to the human mind, and truly honorable as it is to receive from our fellow citizens testimonies of approbation for exertions to promote the public welfare, it is not less pleasing to know that the milder virtues of the heart are highly respected by a Society whose liberal principles must be founded in the immutable laws of truth and justice. To enlarge the sphere of social happiness is worthy of the benevolent design of a Masonic institution; and it is most fervently to be wished that the conduct of every member of the Fraternity, as well as those publications that discover the principles which actuate them, may tend to convince mankind that the great object of Masonry is to promote the happiness of the human race.'' —George Washington
1747, 1 Aug Act of Proscription takes effect, banning in Scotland the wearing of tartan, the teaching of Gaelic, the gatherings of Highlanders, and the playing of bagpipes.
1751, Jan 21 Marquis Saint Clair d. André-Claude-Aimable Vidard Marquis Saint Clair depuis 1715, Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis. Source: <>
1752, 30 Nov St Andrew's Day Scottish patron saints feast day.
1755, 17 Nov Louis XVIII b. at Versailles. Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre. Given name: Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France; Comte de Provence Reign: 2 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815 Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1757, 23 Jun Battle of Plassey Clive defeats Bengalis.
1754 French and Indian War [begin]
1755 Acadians from Nova Scotia to Louisiana
1756, 17 May French and Indian War Britain declared war on France, starting the Seven Years War, which in America became known as the French and Indian War.'_War
1758, 25 Nov Britain captures Ft Duquesne (Pittsburgh)
1759 Quebec to Britain
1756, 6 Dec Clive occupies Fulta British troops under Robert Clive occupied Fulta, India. There are many Sinclair connection with the Raj here are two;
  • Madras
    1 Mar 1640 Madras became an English possession 1640 -1652 subordinate to Bantam (in the East Indies) 1652 -1655 Presidency of Madras 1684 Presidency of Madras 10 Sep 1746 - Aug 1749 French occupation 20 Oct 1774 part of British India 15 Aug 1947 part of independent India

    The Governor from 30 Oct 1912 - 29 Mar 1919 was John Sinclair, Baron Pentland (b. 1860 - d. 1925) he was Scottish Secretary in 1905 the post was upgrader in 1926 to Secretary of State for Scotland. In 1931 that post was held by Sir Archibald Sinclair

    A collection of John Sinclair's, the Baron Pentland correspondence is in National Archives of Scotland under reference : RH4/97 and also Cambridge University: Churchill Archives Centre under reference : SAUN NRA 18610 Saunders

  • Assam
    24 Feb 1826 ceded to U.K. by Burma 1826 -1832 part of Bengal 1832 princely state restored 1838 - 1874 part of Bengal 16 Oct 1905 part of province of East Bengal and Assam 1912 Assam became a separate province 15 Aug 1947 part of independent India

    The Governor from 3 Apr 1921 - 10 Oct 1922 was Sir William Sinclair Marris

Sinclair — <>
1757, Aug 6 Thomas Telford b. Scottish engineer of roads, canals and bridges, born at Westerkirk, near Langholm, the son of a shepherd.
1759, 24 Nov Destructive eruption of Vesuvius
1759, 16 Jan British Museum opens in London.
1760 French and Indian War [end]
1760, 25 Oct George II d. King of Britain dies.
1760, 26 Oct George III King of Great Britain
1762 Louisiana to Spain
1759, 25 Jan Robert Burns b. in Ayrshire: Burns Day.
1762 Clearances for Sheep begin Sir John Lockhart-Ross brings sheep to his Balnagowan estate, raises tenant rents, installs fences and Lowlander shepherds.
1763 St. Augustine for Havana
1767 military gov. California
1768, July 30 Capt. Cook sails Captain Cook set sail on his first voyage.
1769 San Diego Calif.
1762, Aug 12 George IV b. King George IV born at St.James's Palace in London's Pall Mall, the eldest son of George III. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1763 East & West Florida British E. & W. of Apalachicola R.
1763 Canada & Louisiana east of the Miss. to Britain
1765, 24 Aug Stamp Act revolt The American colonists rebelled against the Stamp Act. The colonists argued that without either local consent or direct representation in Parliament, the act was "taxation without representation." They also objected to the law's provision that those who disobeyed could be tried in admiralty courts without a jury of their peers. Lord Coke argued in the 1600's in the favour of the Americans in finding any Act null and void. that involved taxation without representation. Coke's influence on Americans showed clearly when the Massachusetts Assembly reacted by declaring the Stamp Act "against the Magna Carta and the natural rights of Englishmen." —
1770 Islenos from Canary Islands to Louisiana
1770, 6 May Botany Bay Capt. Cook discovers Botany Bay.
1772, 1 Sept Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa founded in California —
1773, 26 Dec Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia
1774, 10 May Louis XV d. King of France dies.
1774, 11 May Louis XVI King of France
1770, 5 Mar Boston Massacre There were then killed and wounded, by a discharge of musketry, eleven of his Majesty's subjects,...
1773, Dec 16 Boston Tea Party
1774 1st Cont. Congress
1775 Amer- ican Revo- lution [begin]
1775, July 30 Capt. Cook returns Captain Cook with Resolution returns to England
1771, Aug 15 Walter Scott b.
1775, 10 Nov US Marine Corps established by Congress
1775, 31 Dec Battle of Quebec
1776, Feb 6 Battle of Moore's Creek Loyalist Gov. Martin of North Carolina tries to put down "a most daring, horrid, and unnatural Rebellion." Loyalist McLeod's broadswords lose to patriot Caswell's muskets and artillery.
1776, 25 Dec Washington crosses Delaware & surprises Hessians
1777, July 30 Washington in Germantown George Washington occupies Germantown, Pennsylvania
1775, 13 Nov American Revolutionary forces captured Montreal In an attempt to prevent the British from using Canada as a base for attack, two American armies were dispatched, one under General Richard Montgomery who would advance on Montreal, the other under Benedict Arnold, with the purpose of capturing Quebec City. The attack on Montreal was successful, however the invasion of Quebec failed. Montgomery was mortally wounded during this campaign. Arnold took command of the majority of American troops remaining in Canada. He would remain in Canada until the Spring of 1776, and then begin his precarious retreat to New York, by way of Lake Champlain, relentlessly pursued by the British under General Sir Guy Carleton. General Arnold managed to assemble an improvised Naval force, which would engage the British on Lake Champlain. The Americans were badly defeated, but their actions delayed the British almost until the onset of winter, preventing their joining main British force on Staten Island.
1776, 2 Aug 1776 Declaration Signed When the American Declaration of Independence, adopted on July 4, was first signed by members of the Continental Congress. Well, most of them. Five more apparently signed in the ensuing months, and one member did not sign until 1777. History can be confusing and inaccurate when blended with myth.
1776, Jul 04 Declaration of Independence U.S. Independence Day.
1776, 19 Dec American Crisis Thomas Paine publishes his 1st `American Crisis' essay
1777, 31 July Major General Lafayette The Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.
1778, July 30 Lafayette in RI Lafayette was sent to Rhode Island.
1778, 26 Nov Capitan Cook discovers Maui (Sandwich Islands)
1779 Spain sides with Americans
1779 Galvez takes Baton Rouge Natchez
1780 Galvez takes Mobile
1777, 5 Oct Philadelphia occupied Philadelphia was occupied by British General Howe. The area surrounding the city, and the Delaware River flowing past Philadelphia, was controlled by the Rebel Continental Army commanded by General George Washington. Howe needed to find a way to bring food and supplies into the city. Howe attacked rebel held forts along the Delaware. Fort Mifflin, the focal point of the rebel defence, came under an intense bombardment. After three weeks of fighting the forts fell but only after a surprising American defence.
1777, 15 Nov Articles of Confederation Continental Congress approves
1778, Feb 06 France sides with the Americans
1779, Sep 28 Samuel Huntington is elected President of the United States in Congress until July 6, 1781. During his term the Articles of Confederation were approved. He was the first American president under a formal union. He was followed by: Thomas McKean, John Hanson, Elias Boudinot, Thomas Mifflin, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock, Arthur St. Clair, Cyrus Griffin. Samuel Huntington was proceeded by; Peyton Randolph, Henry Middleton, John Hancock, Henry Laurens and John Jay in the first Continental Congress. —
1780, 20 Nov Britain declares war against Holland
1781 Galvez takes Pensacola
1783 Fla. to Spain 31 deg. is n. of W. Florida
1783, Feb 3 Spain recognises American Independence
1783, 3 Sep Treaty of Paris UK, France, Spain, Netherlands, and U.S.
1783, 4 Dec Washington bids officers farewell at Fraunce's Tavern NYC
1781 British surrender at Yorktown
1781, 5 Nov John Hanson is elected President of the United States in Congress, holding the office for one year as presiding officer of Congress.
1783 Amer- ican Revo- lution [end]
1783, 4 Feb Parliament proclaims an end to hostilities in America
1783, 25 Nov Britain evacuated NY their last military position in US
1782 Bigger Sheep Clearances Thomas Gillespie and Henry Gibson lease a sheep-walk at Loch Quoich, removing more than 500 tenants, most of whom emigrate to Canada.
1782, 1 July Act of Proscription repealed But many Highland landowners, who have been born and raised in London or other metropolitan areas, remain in their urban homes, distancing themselves from the tenant Clan members on their lands. International Tartan Day.
1783, 23 Dec Washington resigns as United States Army's commander-in-chief
1788, 26 Jan Foundation Day Australia
1789- 1799 French Revolution
1789, 1 Jan Era of Liberty French Revolution
1789, 5 May Estates General The French King convened the Estates General (Parliament) to hear their grievances: The Third Estate, representing the citizens of the town, formed the Constituent National Assembly.
1787 Const. Convention
1788, June 21 U.S. Constitution oldest written Constitution goes into effect as New Hampshire state is 9th to ratify. The American Constitution - a result of mutiny - officially became effective. The Constitution works so well - that many other democracies since have used it as a model for their own. "One's mind, once streched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions." OW Holmes
1789 George Washington
c1788 Cameron of Lochiel Clears In the late 1780s Donald Cameron of Lochiel begins clearing his family lands, which span from Loch Leven to Loch Arkaig.
1788, 22 Jan Lord Byron b. George Gordon Byron (later the 6th Baron Byron), born at 16 Holles St., Cavendish Square, London.
1789, 20 June Oath of the Jeu de Paume The deputies of the French Third Estate took the oath of the Jeu de Paume "to not separate until the Constitution had been established." Also known as the Tennis Court Oath, this marked the transformation of this body into the National Constituent Assembly.
1789, 14 July Bastille Day Symbolic end of the French Monarchy and the beginning of the First Republic. The people of Paris rose up and marched on the Bastille, a state prison that characterized the absolutism and arbitrariness of the Kings Regime. The storming of the Bastille immediately became a symbol of historical dimension; it was verification that power no longer resided in the King as God's representative, but in the people.
1789, 16 July French Revolution Succeeds End of the storming of the Bastille, which symbolizes, for all citizens of France, liberty, democracy.
1789, 26 Aug Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen France became a a nation open to all who define themselves as free men. The Declaration claimed to be universal in application.
1791 First French Constitution Fifteen other constitutions were to follow, leading to the 1958 Constitution (fifth Republic) which is in effect today.
1791 Bill of Rights
1791, 15 Dec Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution called the 'Bill of Rights' ratified when Virginia gave its approval.
1791 Clearance Report The Society of the Propagation of Christian Knowledge reports that over the previous 19 years more than 6,400 people emigrated from the Inverness and Ross areas.
1791 Rev. Kemp observes Clearances "The dis-peopling in great measure of large tracts of country in order to make room for sheep (is taking place)," observes the Reverend Kemp after visiting the Highlands.
1791, 4 Nov Battle of the Wabash Indians def. Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair in the ``greatest victory ever won by Indians over English-speaking opponents.''
1792 black-faced sheep Sir John "James" Sinclair of Ulbster introduces the black-faced Cheviot sheep to Scotland. Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster brings the first black-faced Cheviot Sheep to his Caithness estates. This innovation accellerates the Clearances. These sheep would later be referred to as four-footed Clansmen, indicating the tenants' rage at being removed in favour of animals. —labehotiere <>
1792 July black-faced sheep returned (late July to early August) Angry tenant farmers drive all the Cheviots in Ross-shire to Boath. The 42nd Regiment intervenes, and the sheep are returned to Ross-shire.
1792, July 30 la Marseillaise 500 Marseillaisian men sing France's national anthem for 1st time
1792, 22 Sep Republican Era Declaration of the French Republic
1793, 21 Jan Louis XVI ex. King of France executed at Paris in the French Revolution.
1793, 16 Oct Marie Antoinette ex. Queen of France executed at Paris in the French Revolution.
1793, 8 Nov Louvre in Paris opens
1792, 31 July U.S. Mint cornerstone The cornerstone for the first federal government building was laid in Philadelphia. It was the cornerstone for the U.S. Mint.
1792, 14 Nov Captain George Vancouver is 1st Englishman to enter SF Bay
1793, 19 Nov British reformers meet A convention of Scottish and British reformers meets in Edinburgh: one of the five delegates from England, Charles Sinclair, later moved that the meeting be called "The British Convention of the Delegates of the People, associated to obtain Universal Suffrage and Annual Parliaments." Among the English reformers were Maurice Margarot and Joseph Gerrald of the London Corresponding Society; William Skirving headed up delegates from the Scottish societies.

In September Robert Burns, had written "Scots wha hae?" a poem responding to outrageous severity of the sentence received by Scotch radicals Muir and Palmer. —

1793, 26 Nov Republican calendar replaces Gregorian calendar in France
1793, 9 Dec American newspaper Noah Webster establishes NY's 1st daily newspaper American Minerva
1795 Directory
1795, 8 June 1795 Louis XVII d. Died in prison; never ruled.
1795, 16 Jun Louis XVIII king in exile proclaimed king in exile; not crowned. Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1797 John Adams
1793, 5 Dec Margarot and Gerrald arrested Margarot and Gerrald arrested; later Skirving and Sinclair; the British Convention dissolved by magistrates. —
1796, 21 July Robert Burns d. Scottish poet dies.
1798 Spanish leave W. Fla. above 31 deg.
1799, 18 May Napoleon First Consul The French Revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris and was crowned First Consul at the age of thirty.
1799, 9 Nov Napoleon becomes first consul of France
1800 Louisiana to France
1800, 17 Nov Congress held 1st session in Washington
1800 Washington D.C. capital
1801 Thomas Jefferson
1801, June 1 Brigham Young b. painter, religious leader, polygamist left unanswered the question one woman is hard enough how do you cope with many
1801, 10 Nov Kentucky outlaws duelling
1803 Louisiana to U.S.
1803, 20 Dec Louisiana Purchase was transferred from France to US.
1804 Napoleon Emperor The Corsican took the title of Emperor Napoleon I in 1804.
1804, Feb 16 Marine raid at Tripoli Lt. Decatur and men including 8 Marines recapture and burn the ship Philadelphia at Tripoli; commemorated in the Marines' Hymn: `` the shores of Tripoli''.
1804, 2 Dec Napoleon emperor of the French placing crown on his own head
1805, 2 Dec Austerlitz Napoleon defeats Russians & Austrians
1803 Louisiana Purchase $?M
1804 Haiti independent
1805, 7 Nov Lewis & Clark sight the Pacific Ocean The United States stretched from sea to sea, as a result of the Louisiana Purchase.
1805, 31 Dec End of French Republican calendar
1806, 15 Nov Explorer Zebulon Pike sights Pikes Peak
1810 First Mexican Revo- lution [begin]
1807 Fulton's steamboat
1807, 22 June Chesapeake Affair US Frigate Chesapeake stopped by HMS Leopard.
1807, 1 Sep Aaron Burr aquitted of charges of plotting to set up an empire.
1808 slave import. outlawed
1809 James Madison
1807, Sep 17 Dorothy Wordsworth visits Rosslyn Chapel She remarked: 'Went to view the inside of the Chapel of Roslyn, which is kept locked up, and so preserved from the injuries it might otherwise receive from idle boys, but as nothing is done to keep it together, it must, in the end, fall. The architecture within is exquisitely beautiful.'
1809, 11 Oct Meriwether Lewis d. Meriwether Lewis died along the Natchez Trace, Tennessee, under mysterious circumstances in the early hours of the morning after stopping for the night at Grinder's Tavern along the Natchez Trace. He had spent the night before at Sinclair's Station now the site of The Sinclair, Skinner, Yeiser House. Three years earlier, Lewis and William Clark had completed their brilliant exploration of the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and the Pacific Northwest. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him as governor of the Louisiana Territory, but Lewis soon discovered that the politics and power struggles of the territory were earning him more enemies than friends. Bureaucrats in Washington, D.C., were questioning the legitimacy of some of the purchases Lewis had made for the expedition in 1803, the threat of bankruptcy hung before him if he were forced to cover these costs. — Source: The Strange Death of Governor Meriwether Lewis, Vardes Fisher Swallow Pr; ISBN: 0804006164, 1993
1810, Sep 23 W. Fla. revolts Miss. R. to Perdido R.
1812, Feb 11 Alexander Hamilton Stephens b. Near Crawfordsville, Georgia; he had a Sinclair grandmother.
1810 George III pronounced insane
1810, Dec 07 W. Florida to U.S. just Miss. R. to Bayou La Batrie'
1811 earthquake of 1811
1811 Regency Future George IV acts as Prince Regent of Britain.
1811, 7 Nov Battle of Tippecanoe by the river Wabash vaults William Henry Harrison to national attention.
1812, Jun 18 War of 1812 The first skirmish of the War of 1812.
1812, Jun 19 War of 1812 [begin] The United States declares war on Great Britain. Source: ToW
1812, July 12 Hull driven out to Detroit. United States forces led by General William Hull entered Canada.
1813, Apr 15 Mobile to U.S.
1813, Apr 27 U.S. burns York (Toronto)
1813, 5 Oct B. Thames Battle of the Thames in Canada; Americans defeat British.
1814, Apr Creeks from Ala. Ga., Fla., to Okla. Source: PHLC
1814, 6 Apr Louis XVIII offered throne Constitution of 6 Apr 1814 (Articles 2, 29) offered the throne to "Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France" on condition of accepting the Constitution Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1814, Apr 12 Napoleon abd. Emperor of the French abdicates.
1814, 2 May Declaration of Saint-Ouen issued by Louis XVIII as "King of France and Navarre"; Constitution of 6 Apr 1814 rejected Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1813, June 1 Don't give up the ship The US frigate "Chesapeake," commander Captain James Lawrence said, "Don't give up the ship" during a losing battle frigate HMS Shannon when the Chesapeake was caputered.
1813, Dec 30 British burn Buffalo
1814, 3 May French Restoration Louis XVIII entered Paris Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1814, 24 Dec Treaty of Ghent signed ending War of 1812. (This news did not arrive until after Battle of New Orleans.)
1815, 16 Mar Louis XVIII swears an oath on the Constitutional Charter of 4 Jun 1814 Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1815, 20 Mar Louis XVIII flees abandoned Paris prior to arrival of Napoleon I Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1815, 12 June B. Waterloo begins
1814, 18 July B. Prairie du Chien British defeat Americans and capture Prairie du Chien (Wisconsin)
1814, Aug 25 British burn D.C.
1814, Dec 24 War of 1812 [end] Source: ToW
1814, Dec 24 Treaty of Ghent Source: ToW
1815, 18 June B. Waterloo ends Napoleon defeated Defeated at Waterloo in 1815.
1815, 22 June Napoleon abd. again 2nd abdication of Napoleon.
1815, 8 Jul Louis XVIII entered Paris again. after Napoleon defeated. Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1815, 8 Aug Bonaparte to St. Helena Napoleon Bonaparte left France for St. Helena and lasting exile.
1816, 2 Dec First savings bank in US opens as Philadelphia Savings Fund Society
1817 James Monroe
1818 Gen. Andrew Jackson invades E. Fla.
1819, Feb 22 Adams-Onis Treaty E. Fla. to U.S. Source: ToW ($1M) ToW
1819, 24 May Victoria b. Future Queen of Great Britain
1820 Missouri Compromise
1820, 29 Jan George III d. King of Great Britain dies.
1820, 30 Jan George IV King of Great Britain
1819 Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott.
1821, 5 May Napoleon d. Napoleon Bonaparte dies of slightly obscure causes, commonly accepted to be arsenic poison, although some say a stomach ulcer, in exile on the island of St. Helena, a thousand miles from Africa. His remains are transfered to Paris and entombed at Hotel des Invalides Paris in the Eglise du Dome (Church of the Dome). One of history's best military strategists and artillery men irritated a lot of folks just because he wanted to rule the world.
1821, 1 Dec Santo Domingo (Dominican Rep) proclaims independence from Spain
1822 First Mexican Revo- lution [end]
1822 Brazil empire
1822, 2 Dec San Salvador incorporation? In San Salvador a congress proposes incorporation into US
1820, 26 June George IV d. King of Great Britain dies.
1821 Fla. E. of Perdido R. to U.S.
1823 Mexican Republic
1823, 2 Dec Monroe doctrine US President Monroe declares in his seventh annual message to the US Congress, "the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers."
1824 Charles X King of France. Louis XVIII's constitutional monarchy was overthrown under Charles X.
1824, May 7 Beethoven's Ninth Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 in D minor was performed for the first time in Vienna, Austria. Beethoven's musical interpretation of Schiller's Ode to Joy. The composer was completely deaf when he wrote the symphony.
1824, 16 Sep Louis XVIII d. King of France dies at Paris. Source: The Public and Cultural Services Department of the Chateau of Versailles.
1823 Monroe Doctrine
1824, 4 Oct Mexico Republic Mexico becomes a republic
1828, 3 Dec Andrew Jackson elected American president
1825 Erie Canal
1825, 9 Feb John Quincy Adams U.S. House of Representatives votes to elect John Quincy Adams, who won fewer votes than Andrew Jackson in the popular election, as president. Neither Adams nor Jackson enjoyed a majority of electoral votes in the election of 1824.
1825, 27 Dec First public railroad using steam locomotive completed in England.
1825, 27 Dec First public railroad using steam locomotive completed in England.
1828 1st U.S. passenger RR
1825, 6 Aug National Day of Bolivia. Bolivia was proclaimed an independent Republic, free from nearly 300 years of Spanish rule, with Antonio Sucre its first President. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1830 France into Algeria
1830 Louis-Philippe, of Orleans King of France. The July Monarchy elected the Duke of Orleans, Louis Philippe, King.
1831, 11 Nov Nat Turner executed Former slave who led a violent insurrection.
1832 Napoleon II d. never ruled
1832, 28 Dec John Calhoun resigns 1st Vice-president to resign.
1829 Andrew Jackson
1830, 27 June William IV King of Britain.
1831, 27 Dec HMS Beagle Darwin begins his voyage onboard HMS Beagle
1831, 27 Dec HMS Beagle Darwin begins his voyage onboard HMS Beagle
1832, 24 Nov South Carolina passes Ordinance of Nullification
1835, Jan 21 John Sinclair MP d. Organiser of the First Statistical Account of Scotland.
1835, Oct Texas War of Independence [begin] Source: ToW
1835, Oct Texas rebels from Mexico Source: ToW
1836, Apr 21 Texas War of Independence [end] Source: ToW
1836, Apr 21 Houston def. Santa Anna San Jacinto Source: ToW
1838 Trail of Tears Cherokees to Oklahoma
1836, Mar Texas Republic
1837 Martin Van Buren
1837, 20 June William IV d. King of Britain dies.
1837, 21 Jun Victoria Queen of Britain.
1837, 28 Jun Victoria crowned Queen of Britain.
1837, 7 Feb Sir James Augustus Henry Murray b. Scottish creator of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is born.
1840, 6 Feb Treaty of Waitangi Between Great Britain and New Zealand Maori tribes of North Island, was signed at the settlement of Waitangi. The treaty sought to protect Maori rights and was the basis of the annexation of New Zealand. A key article stated that the Crown had exclusive rights to buy Maori land, which remained in effect until 1862. The documents were partially burned by a fire in 1841.
1841, May 3, 1841 New Zealand colony Formerly part of the Australian colony of New South Wales, New Zealand became an official British colony.
1839, 23 Aug Hong Kong British Britain captured Hong Kong from China. The current leading wine expert in Hong Kong is Kevin Sinclair, who regularly writes for the South China Post. —
1839, 23 Aug Hong Kong British Britain captured Hong Kong from China. The current leading wine expert in Hong Kong is Kevin Sinclair, who regularly writes for the South China Post. —
1840 Canadian Parliament
1841 William Henry Harrison
1841 John Tyler
1842, 19 Dec Hawaii ind. US recognized independence of Hawaii
1844, 6 Nov Spain grants Dominican Rep independence
1846, 13 May U.S. Mexican War U.S. declares war on Mexico.
1842 Oregon Trail
1844 Morse telegraph
1845 James K. Polk
1845, Mar 01 U.S. annexes Texas Source: ToW
1846 Mexican- American War [begin]
1843, July 26 W.W. Sinclair d. William Waters Sinclair died in Goemally, India.
1847, Feb 23 Gen. Taylor def. Santa Anna Source: ToW
1847, 23 Feb B. Buena Vista Gen. Zachary Taylor and 4,700 men defeat Santa Anna and 20,000 Mexicans. One possible origin of the Spanish word gringo.
1847, Mar 9 Scott lands at Veracruz General Winfield Scott lands with an army of 12,000 men on the beaches near Veracruz, Mexico.
1847, Mar 27 Scott takes Veracruz General Winfield Scott takes the fortress of Veracruz, Mexico.
1847, 13 Sep B. Chapultepec Scott defeats Santa Anna in the decisive battle of the U.S.-Mexican War, commemorated in the Marines' Hymn: ``From the Halls of Montezuma...''. "Dia de Los Niños Heroes de Chapultepec" ("day of the boy heroes of Chapultepec). One possible origin of the Spanish word gringo.
1846, Jun California Republic
1846, Aug 10 Smithsonian Institution established at Washington, DC, by the bequest of British scientist James Smithson. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1847, Mar 27 Gen. Scott takes Veracruz Source: ToW
1847, Sep 14 Scott takes Mexico City Source: ToW
1848, Feb 02 Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo Calif., Ariz., N.M. to U.S. Source: ToW
1848, 2 Feb Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Mexico cedes California and New Mexico, including parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming, and accepts international boundary at the Rio Grande. Mexico receives 15 million dollars and is relieved of all claims of citizens of the United States against it.
1848, 20 Dec Louis Napoleon Bonaparte President of France. Nephew of Napoleon I was elected the first president of the Second Republic.
1848.02 Second Republic
1851, 24 Dec Fire devastates Library of Congress in Wash destroys 35 000 volumes
1848, Feb 02 Mexican- American War [end]
1849 Zachary Taylor
1849, 1 Sep California Constitutional Convention held in Monterey
1850 Millard Fillmore
1850 Compromise of 1850
1848, 8 Feb D.W. Sinclair d. David Waters Sinclair, MD died, Bangulpere, E.I.
1848, 27 June Susan Evalyn Sinclair b. at Bannockburn, Lowndes (now Brooks) Co., Ga.
1850, Nov 13 Robert Lewis Stevenson b.
1852 Napoleon III, Emperor Proclaimed Emperor Napoleon III by national plebiscite. It was Louis Napoleon who commissioned Baron Haussman to redesign Paris the boulevards were widened so the government cannon could control the Paris mobs. The French industrial revolution was belatedly started under Louis Napoleon.
1852, 2 Dec Emperor Napoleon III French monarchy restored; Louis Napoleon becomes emperor One year before to the day, followers of President Louis Bonaparte (Napoleon's nephew) broke up the Legislative Assembly and established a dictatorship. A year later, Louis Bonaparte proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III. Marx wrote The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon between December 1851 and February 1852. The "eighteenth Brumaire" refers to November 9, 1799 in the French Revolutionary Calendar..
1853, 30 Dec Gadsden Purchase 45,000 sq miles by Gila River from Mexico for $10 million. Area is now southern Arizona & New Mexico.
1855 William Walker in Nicaragua [begin] Source: ToW
1855, Sep U.S. massacre Sioux Ash Hollow NB Source: ToW
1853 Franklin Pierce
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act repeals Missouri Comp. Source: ToW
1852, 29 May David Sutherland Sinclair b. Brooks Co., Ga.
1852, 15 July Alexander Sinclair d. Merchant dies in Thurso.
1854, 25 Oct Charge of the Light Brigade During the battle of Balaklava, 670 British cavalrymen made the famous "Charge of the Light Brigade" including four Sinclairs. Source: <>
1856 Texas- Commanche- Kiowa Wars [begin] Source: ToW
1857, May William Walker in Nicaragua [end] Source: ToW
1857, 31 Dec Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as new capital of Canada
1858, Jan Mexican Civil War [begin] Source: ToW
1858, Jan Pres. Juarez def. Source: ToW
1857 James Buchanan
1858 1st Atlantic cable
1858 French in Indochina Source: ToW
1859, 2 Dec John Brown hung "Now if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done." Browns speech to the court
1860 Texas- Commanche- Kiowa Wars [end] Source: ToW
1860, Sep William Walker invades Honduras Source: ToW
1861 Apache- American wars [begin] Source: ToW
1859 1st oil (Titusville, Pa.)
1859, 24 Nov Origin of Species by Charles Darwin.
1860 pony express
1860, Nov 06 Lincoln elected Source: ToW
1861 Mexican Civil War [end] Source: ToW
1861, Feb 4 Confederate States of America The Congress of Delegates from the seceding Southern States convened at Montgomery, Alabama.
1861, Mar 11 Confederate Constitution Adoption of Constitution of the Confederate States of America.
1861, Apr 13 War Between the States [begin]
1861, 8 Nov US removes Confederate officials from British steamer Trent
1861, Mar 04 Abraham Lincoln Source: ToW
1861 Rosslyn Chapel restored James Alexander, 3rd Earl of Rosslyn, agrees that Sunday services should begin again. He instructed the Edinburgh architect David Bryce to carry out restoration work. The carvings in the Lady Chapel were attended to, stones were relaid in the crypt and an altar established there.
1861, Feb 9 CSA Pres, VP Jefferson Davis elected President and Alexander Stephens elected Vice President of the Confederate States of America; Stephens had a Sinclair grandmother.
1861, 9 Nov Battle of Piketon Ky
1862 Apache- American wars [end] Source: ToW
1862, Mar 09 CSA Virginia vs. USA Monitor Source: ToW
1862, Apr 07 B. Shiloh Beauregard vs. Grant; Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston killed Source: ToW ToW
1862, May 05 Mexicans def. Fr. Puebla, Cinco de Mayo Source: ToW
1861, Dec 17 Fr. Brit., Span. occupy Veracruz Source: ToW
1862, Tuesday Apr 22 Rosslyn Chapel rededicated By the Bishop of Edinburgh. The Bishop of Brechin preached from the text, 'Our Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place where thine honour dwelleth' (Psalms xxvi, v8).
1862, 2 June R.E. Lee takes command Gen. Robert E. Lee takes command of the armies of northern Virginia and North Carolina.
1862, Jul Calif. def. Apaches Cochise takes command Source: ToW
1862, July 30 US incivility the US government refused to clothe and equip black soldiers in the Civil War.
1862, Aug Sioux- American War [begin] Source: ToW
1862, 31 Dec Merrimac sinks Monitor Union ironclad ship "Monitor" sank at Cape Hatteras NC.
1863, Jan 01 Emancipation Proclamation Source: ToW
1862, 20 Nov Capt. J.H. Sinclair d. In Forty-seventh Tennessee, killed at battle of Murfreesboro. —
1863, May 06 B. Chancellorsville Army of Northern Virginia led by Gen. Robert E. Lee routed Union troops under Gen. Joseph Hooker. Source: ToW
1863, Jun 12 Maximilian emp., Mexico Source: ToW
1863, July 30 Lincoln eye-for-eye Pres Lincoln issues "eye-for-eye" order to shoot a rebel prisoner for every black prisoner shot
1863, Sep 20 B. Chickamauga Creek Bragg def. Rosecrans Source: ToW
1863, 19 Nov Lincoln delivers Gettysburg address
1863, Jul 3 Meade def. R.E.Lee Gettysburg Source: ToW
1863, Nov 27 Grant def. Bragg Chattanooga Source: ToW
1864, May 04 Grant vs. R.E.Lee [begin] Source: ToW
1864, May 05 Sherman marches on Atlanta Source: ToW
1864, July 30 Battle of the Crater Gen. Burnside fails in attack of Petersburg
1864, 5 Oct Calcutta Cyclone Most of Calcutta destroyed by cyclone.
1864, 8 Nov Abraham Lincoln elected again to his second term as US president
1864, 10 Nov Austrian Archduke Maximilian became emperor of Mexico
1864, 29 Nov Colorado militia kills 150 peaceful Cheyenne Indians
1864, Aug 31 Sherman takes Atlanta Source: ToW
1864, 20 Dec Sherman marches Union Gen. Sherman continued his `march to the sea.' Savannah Ga
1865 Sioux- American War [end] Source: ToW
1865, Feb 3 Hampton Roads Peace Conference Abraham Lincoln, Pres. USA & Alexander H. Stephens, VP CSA, reach an impasse. Alexander Hamilton Stephens had a Sinclair grandmother.
1865, Apr 09 Appomattox Confederate Gen. R.E. Lee surrenders to Union Gen. U.S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. End of the war. Source: ToW
1865, Apr 16 Andrew Johnson Source: ToW
1864, Dec 21 Sherman takes Savannah Source: ToW
1865, Jan Sherman in Carolina Source: ToW
1865, Apr 02 Grant vs. R.E.Lee [end] Source: ToW
1865, May War Between the States [end]
1865, 24 Dec Ku Klux Klan Several Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski Tn.
1866 Red Cloud's War [begin] Source: ToW
1866 Napolon III withdraws from Mexico Source: ToW
1866 Reconstruction [begin]
1866, July 30 NO Race riot Race riot in New Orleans
1866, 4 Nov Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia
1867 Alaska purchase $7.2M
1867, May 19 Maximilian executed Source: ToW
1867, July 1 Confederation Day Dominion of Canada becomes effective, merging Canada West (Ontario), Canada East (Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia into a new nation.
1868 Red Cloud's War [end] Source: ToW
1868 Cuban insur- rection [begin] Source: ToW
1868, 25 Dec Johnson pardons rebels Despite bitter opposition American President Andrew Johnson grants unconditional pardon to all persons involved in the Southern rebellion.
1869 Ulysses S Grant
1869, 15 Nov Free Postal Delivery formally inaugurated
1869 Suez Canal
1870, 15 July Franco-Prussian War begins Source: ToW
1870, 1 Sep Napoleon III captured at Sedan —
1871, June? Third Republic
1871, 28 Jan Franco-Prussian War ends Source: ToW
1871, 18 Mar Paris Commune Source: ToW
1870, 8 Aug America's Cup The first America's Cup race, open to challenge by any nation's yachts, took place - `Magic' of the United States beating the British challenge of `Cambria'. (Of course this was long before the advent of the `winged keel' ..... - Ian ) Source: Ian Newman
1871, Sep Cochise gives up Source: ToW
1871, 10 Nov Stanley presumes to meet Livingstone in Ujiji Central Africa
1872 Cochise & Apaches on reservations Source: ToW
1872 Reconstruction [end]
1872, 7 Nov Mary Celeste sails from NY to Genoa; found abandoned 4 weeks later
1872, 18 July secret ballot Britain introduced the concept of voting by secret ballot; something new. Like all bills involving the increase of franchise and right of the common man in originated in the House of Lords. William Ewart Gladstone was Prime Minister.
1873 panic of 1873
1873 depression (1873-1877) [begin]
1876 Sioux/Cheyenne- American War [begin] Source: ToW
1876 Porfirio Diaz Mex. dictator Source: ToW
1876 Twain Tom Sawyer
1874, Aug 10 Herbert Hoover b. American Republican statesman and 31st President, born at West Branch in Iowa, the son of a blacksmith. (I think he also spent some considerable time in Australia, including the Western Australian goldfields, but that would need to be checked - Ian) Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1875, 31 July Andrew Johnson d. the 17th president of the United States, Andrew Johnson, died in Carter Station, Tennessee, at age 66.
1875, 5 Nov Susan B Anthony arrested for attempting to vote
1876, Jun 25 Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull def. Custer Little Big Horn Source: ToW
1877 Rutherford B. Hayes
1877 depression (1873-1877) [end]
1877, Jan 06 Sioux/Cheyenne- American War [end] Source: ToW
1877, Jan 06 Crazy Horse surr. Source: ToW
1877, Aug 29 Brigham Young d.
1877, 5 Oct End Nez Perce War Chief Joseph surrenders ending Nez Perc War.
1878 Cuban insur- rection [end] Source: ToW
1878 1st telephone exchange
1878, July 30 anti-semitism German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
1879, Jan Victorio's War [begin] Source: ToW
1878, 20 Sept Upton Sinclair b. Birth of Upton (Beall) Sinclair Source: Chambers Biographical Dictonary ed J O Thorne T C Collocott W& R Chambers Edinburgh 1984
1879 War of the Pacific Chile, Peru, Bolivia [begin] Source: ToW
1879, Oct 15 Victorio's War [end] Source: ToW
1879, Oct 15 Apache Victorio surr. Source: ToW
1880, 14 Aug Cologne Cathedral finished The largest Gothic church in northern Europe, the Cologne Cathedral, was completed after 632 years. Rebuilding had begun Aug. 14, 1248. A fire wrecked the old church . First church on the site 873.
1881 James A. Garfield
1881 Chester A. Arthur
1881, 14 July Billy the Kid d. William H. Bonney Junior, alias "Billy the Kid," shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett at Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
There's many a man with face fine and fair
Who starts out in life with a chance to be square
But just like poor Billy, he wanders astray
And loses his life in the very same way.
1881, 15 Nov American Federation of Labour founded (AFL)
1883, Mar 4 Alexander Hamilton Stephens d. VP CSA; U.S. Congressman; and Governor of Georgia; he had a Sinclair grandmother.
1884 War of the Pacific Chile, Peru, Bolivia [end] Source: ToW
1881, Aug 12 Cecil B De Mille b. American film producer, noted for his Biblical spectacles, born at Ashfield in Massachusetts. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1881, 6 Aug penicillin Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist and discoverer of penicillin (greatly helped by Aussie Howard Florey[-Ian's comment!]), born at Loudon, in Ayrshire. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1881, Nov 16 Apse added to Rosslyn Chapel Francis Robert, 4th Earl of Rosslyn, added the apse to serve as a baptistry with an organ loft above. On this date he writes to his architect Andrew Kerr, `I must say that the author pronounces your building a complete success.'
1885 Grover Cleveland
1886, Sep 04 Apache Geronimo surrenders Source: ToW
1887, 29 Nov US receives rights to Pearl Harbor on Oahu Hawaii
1888 slavery banned in Brazil
1889 Benjamin Harrison
1885, Aug 10: electric rail The first electric street-railway in the United States was opened in Baltimore by Leo Daft. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1890, 6 Aug electric chair The electric chair was used for the first time in America, at Auburn Prison, New York - the victim was murderer William Kemmler. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1890, Aug 11 Cardinal Newman d. Cardinal Newman (no relation that I'm aware of yet!), English churchman and leader of the Oxford Movement which intended to restore high-Church ideals, died at Edgbaston in Warwickshire aged 89. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1890, Aug 11 Cardinal Newman d. Cardinal Newman (no relation that I'm aware of yet!), English churchman and leader of the Oxford Movement which intended to restore high-Church ideals, died at Edgbaston in Warwickshire aged 89. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1885, Feb 7 Sinclair Lewis b. Novelist/social critic (Main Street, Nobel Prize 1930).
1885, 25 Nov American Vice President Thomas A Hendricks died at 66, 8 months after taking office. Long-term US Democratic political leader and vice president under President Grover Cleveland in 1885. Hendricks was of Scots decent with a Sinclair great grandmother.
1890, 28 Dec Battle of Wounded Knee in SD - Last major conflict with American Indians.
1890, Dec 29 U.S. massacres Sioux Wounded Knee Source: ToW
1890, 29 Dec Wounded Knee Federal troops massacre 300 captive Sioux in South Dakota.
1890, 31 Dec Ellis Island opens as a US immigration depot.
1893 Grover Cleveland
1891, 16 Nov Buffalo Bill opens Glasgow season.
1892, 27 Feb Buffalo Bill wraps Glasgow season.
1893 panic of 1893
1893 depression (1893-1896) [begin]
1894 Edison's kinetoscope
1895 Cuban War of Independence [begin] Source: ToW
1895 French Indochina comp.
1894, Dec 3 Robert Lewis Stevenson d.
1895, May 19 Jose Marti killed Source: ToW
1896 depression (1893-1896) [end]
1897 William McKinley
1898 Puerto Rico Guam to U.S., Cuba independent; Marianas to Germany
1898, Feb 15 Battleship Maine blown up Source: ToW
1898, Apr 25 Spanish-American War [begin] Source: ToW
1898, July 30 corn flakes Will Kellogg invents Corn Flakes
1898, Aug 14 Spanish-American War [end] Source: ToW
1898, Dec 10 Cuban War of Independence [end] Source: ToW
1898, Dec 10 Treaty of Paris Spanish-American War ends. US acquires Guam from Spain. Source: ToW
1898, 6 Aug Andrew John George Sinclair b. In Melbourne, Australia, to Andrew W Sinclair of the Lappan family and his wife Henrietta Elizabeth Hogg, and lived to 91 years, 3 months. Source: Jean Stokes
1899 American Samoa
1899, 2 Dec Samoa divided US & Germany agree to divide Samoa between them
1901 1st oil in Texas (Beaumont)
1901, 4 Aug Louis Armstrong b.
1901, Sep Theodore Roosevelt
1900, 8 Aug Davis Cup The Davis Cup for tennis, presented by Dwight Filley Davis, was contested for the first time, at Brookline in Massachusetts - won by USA on 10th. Source: Ian Newman
1900, 31 Aug Coca-Cola British Coca-Cola first went on sale in Britain. —
1901, 22 Jan Victoria d. Queen of Britain dies.
1901, 23 Jan Edward VII King of Britain.
1900, 4 Aug Queen Mother b. The future Queen Mother Elizabeth, currently residing in the Castle of Mey, is born.
1902, May U.S. troops out Cuba Source: ToW
1902, 28 Dec Trans-Pacific cable links Hawaii to US
1903 U.S. Guantanamo Bay naval base Source: ToW
1903 Ford's assembly line
1903, Nov 03 Rep. of Panama Source: ToW
1902, Aug 9 Edward VII crowned The coronation of King Edward VII took place - having been put back some 6 weeks because of the need of an emergency appendicitis operation. Source: Ian Newman
1905 U.S. occup. Cuba [begin] Source: ToW
1905 sep., church & state
1906 S.F. earthquake
1908 Model T
1908, July 30 world road race Around the World Automobile Race ends in Paris
1908, 5 Oct Bulgaria Bulgaria declares independence from Turkey.
1909 U.S. occup. Cuba [end] Source: ToW
1909 William H. Taft
1910 Mexican Revo- lution [begin]
1910, 5 Oct Portugal republic Portugal overthrows monarchy proclaims republic.
1910, 6 May Edward VII d. King of Britain dies.
1910, 7 May George V King of Britain. George V crowned 1911, 22 June King of Britain.
1909, 23 Nov Nigel Tranter b. Scottish novelist born.
1910, 17 Oct David Sutherland Sinclair d. Darien, Ga.
1910, 20 Nov Revolution broke out in Mexico led by Francisco I. Madero.
1911 Curtiss seaplane
1912, Jan U.S. marines Honduras Source: ToW
1912, Jul U.S. marines Nicaragua Source: ToW
1912, 28 Nov Albania declares independence from Turkey
1913 Woodrow Wilson
1913 U.S. blockades Mexico
1913, 23 Dec US Federal Reserve system authorized
1914 U.S. occup. Vera Cruz Source: ToW
1914 Panama Canal
1914, June 28 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, leading to WW I.
1914, 20 Nov US State Department starts requiring photographs for passports
1915, Apr Obregon def. Villa Celaya Source: ToW
1915, 2 May Lt. Helmer k. at Ypres John McCrae remembers him in the poem ``In Flanders Fields.''
1915, Jul 03 U.S. occup. Haiti Source: ToW
1915, 27 Sept John Kipling k. at Loos Son of Rudyard Kipling.
1916 U.S. occup. Dom. Rep. Source: ToW
1916, Mar 15 Mexican- American Border War [begin] Source: ToW
1916, Mar 15 Pancho Villa raids N.M. Source: ToW
1916, 3 July Battle of the Somme First day of the battle of the Somme after a week of heavy bombardment of German positions.
1916, July 30 German sabotage German saboteurs blow up a munitions plant on Black Tom Island, NJ
1916, 7 Nov First woman elected in any major legislature in the world. Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana elected. In 1916 she ran successfully for a seat in the US Congress on a progressive Republican platform that called for national women's suffrage, child protection laws, and prohibition. At the age of 88 in 1968, she led more than 5,000 women who called themselves the Jeannette Rankin Brigade to Capitol Hill in Washington DC to demonstrate their opposition to US involvement in Vietnam. Rankin was the only member of Congress to vote against the American entry into World War I or World war II (she served two two year terms, 1917-1919 and 1941-1943) In 1917 Rankin declared, "I want to stand by my country, but I cannot vote for war. I vote no." In 1941, responding to the roll call which followed a 40 minute debate on the declaration of war against Japan, Rankin said, "As a woman, I can't go to war and I refuse to send anyone else." —
1916, 29 Nov US declares martial law in Dominican Republic
1917 U.S. occup. Cuba Source: ToW
1917, Feb Mexican- American Border War [end] Source: ToW
1917, 6 Apr U.S. in WW I U.S. declares war.
1917, Apr 06 WW I [begin] Source: ToW
1917, 19 June Windsor King George V ordered members of our royal family to dispense with German titles & surnames, they took the name Windsor.
1917, Nov Georges Clemenceau premier
1917, 2 Nov Lansing-Ishii Agreement attempt to reconcile conflicting US and Japanese policies in China during World War I by a public exchange of notes between the US secretary of state, Robert Lansing, and Viscount Ishii Kikujiro of Japan. Japan promised respect for China's independence and territorial integrity and for the US-sponsored Open door Policy. —
1917, 6 Dec Finland declares independence from Russia (National Day)
1917, 11 Dec Lithuania German-occupied Lithuania proclaims independence from Russia
1917, Dec 18 Prohibition passed AMENDMENT XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
1917, 2 Nov Balfour Declaration Lord Balfour informs Lord Rothschild that ``Dear Lord Rothschild, I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. " His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a National home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

``Yours sincerely,

``Arthur James Balfour''

Often seen as the initiation of the process that led to the establishment of the State of Israel. Issuing of the statement is believed to have been motivated just as much by British interests, as by the sympathy for the Zionist cause. At the eve of the World War I Britain needed the support from the World Jewry, which had been neutral, and which represented a large part of the population of Germany and Austria-Hungary. The declaration was drafted with the help of US President, Woodrow Wilson, who was a strong supporter of Zionism. —

1918, 15 Oct Sinclair DD-275 Sinclair (DD-275) Keel laid down on 15 October by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Squantum, Mass. launched on 2 June 1919; sponsored by Mrs. George Barnett, granddaughter of Capt. Sinclair, and commissioned on 8 October 1919, Lt. Comdr. C. S. Roberts in command.

On 22 November 1930, Sinclair was renamed Light Target #3 (IX-37). Due to faulty boilers, however, her conversion to a target ship was canceled. She recovered her original name on 24 April 1931 and her destroyer designation on 11 August 1931. Sinclair was struck from the Navy list on 5 June 1935 and sold on 30 August 1935 to Learner and Rosenthal, Oakland, Calif., for scrapping. Source:

1918, 7 Nov Goddard demonstrates tube-launched solid propellant rockets
1918, Nov 8 Ultimatum for Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate The Kaiser was given an ultimatum to abdicate on Nov. 8, 1918. He replied he might resign as Emperor but remain as King of Prussia, who appointed enough seats in the upper house to block any amendment to the Constitution. There was an uprising in Berlin. On his own a leader in Berlin announced the Kaiser had abdicated. Source: Marshall Dill, Jr., Germany, A Modern History, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Harbor, 1970, pp. 248-9.
1918, Nov 10 Kaiser Wilhem II flees On the night before the end of the war the Kaiser fled to Holland and had the protection of the Dutch queen. "It was not until almost three weeks later that he drew up an act of abdication." Source: Marshall Dill, Jr., Germany, A Modern History, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Harbor, 1970, pp. 248-9.
1918, 11 Nov WW I ends On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, the guns fell silent; end of World War I. Remembrance Day (Commonwealth); formerly Armistice Day, now Veterans Day (U.S.).
1918, Nov 11 WW I [end] Source: ToW
1918, 12 Nov Austria becomes a republic
1918, 1 Dec Iceland independent state under the Danish crown
1919 Prohi- bition [begin]
1919, Jan 16 Prohibition ratified AMENDMENT XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
1919, 28 June Treaty of Versailles Signing of the Treaty of Versailles at Versailles. Official end of WWI.
1919, June 21 scuttled in Scap 72 warships of the German Fleet were scuttled in Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. Source: "Chambers Dates" (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6, Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland.
1919, 31 July Weimar Constitution Germany's Weimar Constitution was adopted.
1919, 22 Dec US deports 250 alien radicals
1920 Mexican Revo- lution [end]
1920 Obregon ass. Carranza becomes president Source: ToW
1920 radio
1920 1st trans-Atl. flight
1920 talkies
1920, Jan 16 Prohibition AMENDMENT XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
1921 Warren G. Harding
1921, 29 Dec William Lyon Mackenzie King succeeded Arthur Meighen as Canadian PM.
1921, 10 June Prince Philip b. Duke of Edinburgh born in 1921 on the island of Corfu and was christened Philippos Schleswig-Holstein Soenderburg-Glucksburg. See also.
1921, 6 Dec Irish Free State gains independence from Britain
1920, 26 Feb Susan Evalyn Sinclair d. at Valdosta, Georgia
1923 Pancho Villa d. Source: ToW
1923 Calvin Coolidge
1923, 5 Oct Cepheid variable Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star.
1923, 8 Nov Hitler's "Beer Hall Putsch" failed In jail writes "Mein Kampf"
1924 U.S. out of Dom. Rep. Source: ToW
1923, 25 Oct Teapot Dome report Senate committee publishes 1st report on Teapot Dome scandal implicating Harry F. Sinclair
1925 U.S. marines Nicaragua Source: ToW
1926 Goddard's rocket
1926, 25 Dec Emperor Hirohito Michinomiya Hirohito, posthumous name Showa, emperor of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989. He was the longest-reigning monarch in Japan's history. An unconvicted war criminal.
1927 Lindbergh flies Atlantic
1928 Earhart flies Atlantic
1926, 6 Aug channel woman Gertrude Ederle of America became the first woman to swim the English Channel, crossing from Cap Gris Nez to Deal in 14.5 hours. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1928, July 30 movies George Eastman shows 1st color motion pictures
1929 Herbert C. Hoover
1929, Oct stock market crash
1929, Oct Great Depression [begin]
1929, 28 Nov Admiral Richard E Byrd makes 1st South Pole flight
1929, 25 Oct Albert Fall convicted Former Interior Sec Albert Fall convicted of accepting $100,000 bribe from Sinclair Oil Co.
1929, 29 Nov American Admiral Richard Byrd & crew flies over South Pole
1930, 3 Nov Bank of Italy becomes Bank of America
1931, 5 Oct non-stop transpacific 1st non-stop transpacific flight Japan to Wenatchee Wash.
1932, 8 Nov Franklin D Roosevelt elected president
1933 Prohi- bition [end]
1932, 19 Dec BBC World Service British Broadcasting Corp. began transmitting overseas
1932, 19 Dec BBC World Service British Broadcasting Corp. began transmitting overseas
1932, 20 Nov Peguis Chief Robert Sinclair elected as chief of Canadian Peguis Indians until 1935; he was a half breed. Then his son 1953 - 1955 Alex Sinclair, younger son 1973 - 1981 Jack Sinclair, but not on 20 Nov. And also half breed Jim Sinclair (Cree/Metis) provincial and national leader of Metis and non-status Indians, most noted for his work on constitutional recognition. —
1933, Mar 04 Franklin D. Roosevelt Source: ToW
1933, 5 Dec Prohibition repealed AMENDMENT XXI Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933. Section 1. The Eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
1933, 26 Dec United States foreswears armed intervention in Western Hemisphere and has only invaded other countries 23 times since then.
1935, 14 Nov FDR proclaimed Philippine Is a free commonwealth
1937 Earhart lost in Pacific
1936, 20 Jan George V d. King of Britain dies.
1936, 21 Jan Edward VIII King of Britain.
1936, 10 Dec Edward VIII abdicates. no longer King of Britain.
1936, 11 Dec George VI King of Britain.
1936, 11 Dec Edward VIII abdicates King Edward VIII of England abdicates on 10 December and announced it to the public during a radio address 11/12, saying "I have found it impossible to carry on the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge the duties of King as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love." 12/12, after Edward had already departed for Austria to stay with friends, his brother, now King George VI, named him the duke of Windsor.
1933, 12 Nov 1st known photo of Loch Ness monster (or whatever) is taken
1935, 9 Dec Jean (sinead) Stokes b. Mother of milamba. Source: milamba
1937, 8 Aug Laurel Gene Fechner b.
1938, Mar 12 Anschluss Germany absorbs Austria
1939 Great Depression [end]
1940, 25 June France falls
1939, 6 Sep Germany attacks Britain. First German air attack on Great-Britain in WW II.
1940, 26 May Dunkirk [begin] First day of British withdrawal from Dunkirk after the fall of France.
1940, 30 May Dunkirk [middle] 53,823 evacuated from Dunkirk, bringing total landed in England since May 27 to 126,606. The nine days of Dunkirk were a withdrawal of land forces less all their equipment across the English Channel, following many military disasters in France. The German conquest of France was complete. The evacuation owed much to the unstinting bravery of the French troops fighting at the Dunkirk perimeter and to seven hundred brave small craft almost a hundred of which were lost in the evacuation of 385,000 troops, more than 100,000 of them French, were ferried to the waiting ships or taken direct to England to fight again another day.
1940, 3 June Dunkirk [end] Final day of British withdrawal from Dunkirk after the fall of France. Everything that could float in England, some boats making three or more journeys on their own, amid dive bombing and strafing by the Luftwaffe.
1940, 14 Nov Coventry air raids During WW II German planes destroyed most of Coventry England
1938, 8 Oct Parthenon Inquiry Report "3. The Board held a fourth meeting on the 15th of November 1938 at which all the members were present except Sir Charles Peers who communicated his views in a letter to Lord Macmillan of 14th November. The Board examined J. F. Sinclair and A. E. Simenton, two of the labourers who had been engaged in the cleaning of the sculptures; and A. S. Holcombe, the Foreman Mason, was recalled and further examined. Sinclair stated that he had used copper tools in cleaning the Parthenon marbles since June 1937. He also stated that Daniel, the foreman employed by Lord Duveen, had pointed out to him that one of the slabs, chosen for Lord Duveen to show in his new gallery, was not white enough and that Holcombe had previously told him to see if he could brighten it up. The slab was in consequence recleaned. Daniel commended him for getting it whiter. The incident is of importance only as showing that Holcombe and Sinclair and presumably the other workmen were aware of Daniel's desire that the sculptures should be made as clean and white as possible for Lord Duveen.

4. The Board learned from Holcombe, Sinclair and Simenton that a sum of two or three pounds had been given by Daniel to Holcombe to be divided among himself and the workmen after they had performed some heavy work in moving some of the sculptures, and that this sum was shared among them. The Board do not associate this payment with the cleaning operations, except in so far as it was calculated to promote the readiness of Holcombe and the workmen to comply with Daniel's wishes." BOARD OF INQUIRY APPOINTED BY THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM AT A MEETING ON 8TH OCTOBER, 1938 — Source: Appendix 6 .BRITISH MUSEUM PARTHENON SCULPTURES SECOND REPORT BY THE

1939, 6 Sep Wing Commander Gordon L, Sinclair, OBE, DFC First German air attack on Great-Britain in WW II. Pilot, Wing Commander Gordon Leonard Sinclair, OBE, DFC 310 Squadron, Cambridgeshire, flew Hurricanes and was one of the first to fly the Spitfire. He became an ace during the ensuing Battle of Britain. —
1940, 9 Nov Germany invaded Norway & Denmark in WW II
1941, 7 Dec Pearl Harbor Japanese sneak attack on U.S. base in Honolulu, Hawaii.
1941, Dec 07 Pearl Harbor attacked ("a day that will live in infamy" F D Roosevelt)
1941, 7 Dec first Japanese submarine sunk by American ship (The USS Ward)
1941, Dec 07 WW II [begin]
1941, 9 Dec US declares war on Japan
1941, 13 Nov British aircraft carrier Ark Royal sank in Mediterranean.
1941, 11 Dec Japanese occupy Guam
1942, 19 Jan Japan invades Burma
1942, July 30 WAVES FDR signs bill creating women's Navy auxiliary agency (WAVES)
1942, July 30 Minsk massacre Nazi SS kills 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia
1942, 8 Nov Allied forces invade North Africa
1941, 25 Dec Hong Kong surrender announced. Japan announces surrender of British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong.
1941, 25 Dec Hong Kong surrender announced. Japan announces surrender of British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong.
1942, 13 Nov Minimum draft age lowered from 21 to 18 In U.S.
1942, 27 Nov French navy at Toulon scuttled its ships & submarines to prevent them from falling into hands of Nazis "For, remember this, France does not stand alone. She is not isolated. Behind her stands a vast Empire" Charles de Gaulle, June 18, 1940
1943, 20 Nov American forces land on Tarawa & Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Is.
1944, 25 Aug Paris Liberated Paris Liberated from the Nazi jackboot.
1944, 29 Nov Albania liberated from Nazi control (National Day)
1944, 6 June D-Day Allied forces invade Normandy in Operation Overlord.
1944, 18 Sep The Junyo Maru The Japanese cargo ship "Junyo Maru" was travelling from Java to Sumatra (Indonesia) was in the Indian Ocean, West off Sumatra near Mukomuko she was torpedoed by the British submarine H.M.S Tradewind. 5065 ton vessel carried 2300 Dutch, British, American and Australian POWs and 4200 Javanese slave labourers. 5620 perished in the waters off southwest Sumatra this was the largest maritime disaster of World War II.

Among those who died were Sinclair, C H Aus 2/2 Pion Btn AIF Sinclair, Robert, 1171745 British RAFVR Also the master of the American tanker ship S.S. Virginia Sinclair , which had been itself torpedoed by the Japanese on 3/10/43 with a crew of 7. —labehotiere <> Source: Robert Barr Smith, World War II magazine, March 2002

1944, 12 Nov German battleship Tirpitz was sunk off Norway
1944, 20 Dec Battle of Bastogne Nazis surrounded 101st Airborne (NUTS!).
1945, Apr Harry S. Truman
1945, 7 May VE Day German leaders surrender to Eisenhower in a schoolhouse in Rheims, France, east of Paris, where French kings were traditionally crowned.
1945, 8 May VE Day (Soviet) German surrender documents signed a second time in Berlin, at request of the Soviet Union.
1945, July 30 Indianopolis sinks Philippines Sea: US cruiser Indianapolis torpedoed/sinks, 880 die
1945, Mar 12 British Empire Day
1945, 6 Aug Hiroshima An atom bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima from a Boeing B29 bomber 'Enola Gay'. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1945, 9 Aug Nagasaki The second atom bomb of the war was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
1945, 14 Aug VJ Day Allied Victory over Japan; end of hostilities of World War II.
1945, Aug 14 WW II [end]
1945, Sep 2 Japan surrenders on the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Harbor
1945, 10 Nov Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald liberated by US
1945, 20 Nov 24 Nazi leaders put on trial at Nuremberg Germany.
1945, 27 Dec International Monetary Fund established World Bank founded
1946- 1954.05.07 Franco- Vietnamese War
1946, 19 Dec Indochina War War broke out in Indochina as Ho Chi Minh attacked French.
1946, 31 Dec end of WW II US President Harry S. Truman officially proclaims.
1947 Fourth Republic
1947 Marianas to U.S.
1947, Mar 12 Truman Doctrine Source: ToW
1948, 12 Nov Japanese premier Tojo sentenced to death by war crimes tribunal
1948, 15 Nov William Lyon Mackenzie King retired as prime minister of Canada
1947, 5 Oct televised president 1st Presidential address televised from White House, HS Truman.
1947, 20 Nov Princess Elizabeth marries Prince Philip Mountbatten
1947, 20 Nov Princess Elizabeth marries Prince Philip Mountbatten
1948, 31 July NY International President Truman helped dedicate New York International Airport (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.
1948, 2 Nov Truman beats Dewey in US Presidential Election, confounding pollsters and newspapers Dewey states "Out of the jaws of victory we have snatched defeat" —
1948, 3 Dec Pumpkin Papers came to light US v. Alger Hiss - 1949-1950 Hiss was accused of perjury involving purported Communist ties. Hiss indicated to the Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives that he did not know Whittaker Chambers. Chambers testified as to his prior association as a soviet sympathizer who defected and became a law-abiding American citizen supporter. Much of the evidence had to do with interesting, evidentiary items concerning a meeting between Hiss and Chambers when Hiss, meeting surreptiously in Washington DC with Chambers, observed a prothonatary warbler. The case also involved the so-called Pumpkin Papers and a missing typewriter on which certain important letters had been typed. Hiss was found guilty and sentenced to five years imprisonment and to this day, his son and others proclaim his innocence.
1948, 23 Dec PM Tojo d. He and 6 other Japanese hung for war crimes by US.
1950, 4 Aug Korean War
1950, Aug 04 Korean War [begin]
1951, 8 Sep Japan-U.S. Security Treaty signed this day
1948, 17 Nov U.K. steel nationalized House of Commons voted to nationalize steel industry
1948, 17 Nov U.K. steel nationalized House of Commons voted to nationalize steel industry
1949, July 30 Amethyst escapes British warship HMS Amethyst escape down Yangtze River, having been refused a safe passage by Chinese Communists after 3-month standoff
1951 Stone of Scone returned to Scotland Source: B&S p. 19
1951, Apr 3 Gary M. Sinclair b. Source: "Gary M. Sinclair, Harwich, Ma. USA" <>
1951, 29 Sep Jean Sinclair, b. Source: "Gary M. Sinclair, Harwich, Ma. USA" <>
1951, 24 Dec Libya gains independence from Italy
1952 H-bomb
1952, 28 Apr Japan-U.S. Peace Treaty formal end of war between U.S. and Japan
1952, 28 Apr Japan-U.S. Security Treaty in force this day
1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1952, 6 Feb George VI d. King of Britain dies.
1952, 7 Feb Elizabeth II Queen of Britain.
1953, 2 June Elizabeth II R crowned Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, daughter of George VI, crowned Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1952, Aug 11 King Hussein King Hussein succeeded as King of the Jordan on the deposition of his father, King Talal, because of mental illness. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1953, 27 July Korean War ends
1953, Jul 27 Korean War [end]
1953, 9 Nov Cambodia (now Kampuchea) gains independence within French Union
1954, 7 May Dien Bien Phu Viet Minh troops defeated the French army in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
1954, 2 Dec McCarthy censured US Senate censures Joe McCarthy for his conduct
1953, 31 July Sen. Taft d. Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, known as "Mr. Republican," died in New York at age 63.
1954, 12 Nov Ellis Island closed immigration station in NY Harbor closed
1954, 3 Dec McCarthy condemned Joseph McCarthy, Senator and witch hunter condemned by Senate
1955, 1 Dec Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to move to back of the bus. "Our mistreatment was just not right, and I was tired of it," Parks wrote in her book, "Quiet Strength", (Zondervan Publishing House, Detroit 1994). "I kept thinking about my mother and my grandparents, and how strong they were. I knew there was a possibility of being mistreated, but an opportunity was being given to me to do what I had asked of others." Parks' story is history her arrest and trial led to a 381-day Montgomery Alabama bus boycott, and, finally, a United States Supreme Court ruling in November 1956 that segregation on transportation is contra to the American constitution.
1956 Interstate Highway act
1956, July 30 In God We Trust US motto "In God We Trust" authorized
1956, Dec 02 Cuban Revolution [begin] Source: ToW
1957 Civil Rights bill
1957, Jan 05 Eisenhower doctrine Source: ToW
1957, 4 Oct Sputnik USSR launches Sputnik I the 1st artificial earth satellite.
1958- 1962 Franco- Algerian War
1958 Explorer I
1958, Mar 12 Commonwealth Day Formerly British Empire Day.
1958, June 1 The Horse Soldiers The novel Cavalryman by Harold Sinclair, ISBN 9997408837, published by Harpercollins. It is a fictional account loosely based on a raid from La Grange, Tenn. to Baton Rouge, La. led by Col. Benjamin Grierson in 1863. Made into a movie in 1959 starring John Wayne and directed by John Ford. —
1958, 4 Oct commercial jets Transatlantic comercial jet passenger service began.
1958, 1 Dec Central African Republic established (National Day)
1958, 11 Dec Upper Volta (now Bourkina Fasso) gains autonomy from France
1959 Fifth Republic
1959, Jan 08 Cuban Revolution [end] Source: ToW
1959, Jan 08 Castro Cuba Source: ToW
1959, 4 Oct Far Side USSR Luna 3 sent back 1st photos of Moon's far side.
1960, 4 Oct repeater satellite Courier 1B launched; 1st active repeater satellite in orbit.
1960, 28 Nov Mauritania gains independence from France (National Day)
1960, 7 Dec Cote d'Ivoire France grants Ivory Coast independence (National Day)
1960, Aug 12 Echo I The first communications satellite was launched - America's Echo I. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1959, 17 July Ian Patrick (Kermit) St. Clare b.
1960, Aug 11 Chad Chad, a member state of the French Community in Northern Africa, became an independent Republic. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1961 John F. Kennedy
1961, Apr 17 Bay of Pigs Cuba Source: ToW
1961, 31 Dec Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than $12 billion As the war-torn nations of Europe faced famine and economic crisis in the wake of World War II, the United States proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy. On June 5, 1947, in a commencement address at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall first called for American assistance in restoring the economic infrastructure of Europe. Western Europe responded favourably, and the Truman administration proposed legislation. The resulting Economic Cooperation Act of 1948 restored European agricultural and industrial productivity. Credited with preventing famine and political chaos, the plan later earned General Marshall a Nobel Peace Prize. The plan was an unprecedented act of generosity that should never be forgotten.
1962 Algerian independence
1962, Oct 22 Cuban Missile Crisis Source: ToW
1961, 9 Dec Tanganyika gains independence from Britain
1963, July 30 Philby surfaces Spy Kim Philby appears in Moscow after his flight from England
1962, 6 Aug Jamaica Jamaica became independent after being a British colony for over 300 years. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1963, 22 Nov John F Kennedy assassinated in Dallas
1963, Nov 23 Lyndon B. Johnson Source: ToW
1963, 24 Nov 1st live murder on TV Jack Ruby shoots Lee Harvey Oswald
1964 Civil Rights Act
1964, Aug 04 Vietnam War [begin]
1963, 10 Dec Zanzibar gains independence from Britain
1963, 12 Dec Kenya gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1964, 31 July Ranger Seven transmits the American space probe "Ranger Seven" transmitted pictures of the moon's surface.
1964, Aug 07 Tonkin Gulf Resolution Source: ToW
1964, 3 Dec Police arrests 800 at UCal, Berkeley
1966, 26 Nov 1st major tidal power plant opened at Rance estuary France
1965, 1 Nov Rhodesia proclaimed Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Britain by PM Ian D Smith. This was only the second UDI ever the United States being the first.
1966, Aug 10 Orbiter 1 America's first moon satellite, Orbiter 1, was launched. Published by W & R Chambers Ltd, Edinburgh Scotland. Source: Chambers Dates (1983) ISBN 0 550 11827 6
1966, 4 Oct Lesotho (Basutoland) gains independence from Britain (National Day).
1966, 30 Nov Barbados gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1967, 30 Nov South Yemen (then Aden) gains independence from Britain
1966, 2 Oct Ann Louise Sinclair b. Ann Louise Sinclair born to John and Roslyn Sinclair, Hilston Australia. Source: milamba
1969 Richard M. Nixon
1969 Apollo 11 moon
1969, 1 Sep Gadhafi Col Moammar Gadhafi rose to power deposed Libya's King Idris —
1969, 1 Sep Libyan revolution (National Day) —
1968, 6 Nov Nixon elected 37th president of US defeating Hubert Humphrey
1969, 15 Aug Woodstock The Woodstock Music and Arts Festival opened on Max Yasgur's farm near Bethel, N.Y.
1969, 4 Oct UN stamps UN starts issuing postage stamps at Geneva headquarters.
1969, 15 Nov 250,000 Vietnam protesters peacefully demonstrate against Vietnam War
1971, 9 Feb Apollo 14 returns to Earth
1971, 6 July Louis Armstrong d.
1971, July 30 Bangladesh album George Harrison releases "Bangladesh"
1972 Nixon in China
1970, 4 Oct Janis d. Janis Joplin dies at 27.
1971, July 30 Apollo 15 lands US Apollo 15 (Scott & Irwin) lands on Mare Imbrium on the Moon
1971, 2 Dec United Arab Emirates gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1972, 31 July McGovern loses a VP American vice presidential choice of Democratic presidential nominee George McGovern Sen. Thomas Eagleton, D-Mo., withdrew from the ticket. Six days earlier, Eagleton had revealed that he had previously been hospitalized for psychiatric treatment.
1972, 14 Nov Dow Jones closes above 1,000 for 1st time (1003.16)
1972, 27 Dec Lester Pearson d. Canadian PM dies (Nobel-1956).
1972, 30 Dec Nixon halts bombing US President halts bombing of North Vietnam & announces peace talks.
1973, Jan 27 Vietnam War [end]
1973, 27 Nov Senate votes 92-3 to confirm Gerald R Ford as Vice President
1973, 14 Nov Britain's Princess Anne marries commoner Mark Phillips
1973, 5 June Gordon Sinclair's America Famous Canadian reporter broadcasts his famous speech.
1973, 23 Dec Six Persian Gulf nations double their oil prices
1974 Gerald R. Ford
1974, 8 Aug Nixon resigns Richard Nixon announced his resignation as US President - the first to do so - because of his implication in the Watergate scandal. Source: Ian Newman
1974, Aug 9 Ford sworn in Gerald Ford was sworn in as the 38th President of America, on the resignation of Richard Nixon - the first to serve without being chosen by the people in a National Election. (until Mr Bush that is - - Ian) Source: Ian Newman
1974, 31 Dec gold legal US citizens allowed to buy & own gold for 1st time in 40 years.
1974, July 30 Nixon impeachment approved House Judiciary Committee, by a vote of 21-17, approved the 3rd & last charge of "high crimes & misdemeanors" to impeach President Nixon in the Watergate cover-up. Was ignoring congressional subpoenas.
1974, 31 July Ehrlichman sentenced Watergate figure John Ehrlichman was sentenced to 20 months in prison for his role in the break-in at the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist. Ellsberg was the Pentagon consultant who leaked the "Pentagon Papers," documents about the war in Vietnam.
1974, 9 Feb The Americans peaks ``The Americans (A Canadian's Opinion)'' by Gordon Sinclair peaks at #24.
1975, 11 Nov Portugal grants Angola independence (National Day)
1975, 25 Nov Netherlands grants Surinam independence (National Day)
1975, 2 Dec Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic founded (National Day)
1975, 30 Dec Democratic Republic of Madagascar founded
1976 Viking I & II Mars
1975, 12 Nov US Supreme Court Justice William O Douglas retired after 36 years
1977 Jimmy Carter
1977 experimental Internet
1978, 3 Nov UK grants Dominica independence (National Day)
1978, 19 Nov Jonestown suicides Rev Jim Jones leads 911 people in suicide in Jonestown Guyana
1979 hostages in Iran
1980, 2 Jan Jenny Coster b. Source:
1980, 4 Dec Transkei South Africa grants Transkei independence
1981 Ronald Reagan
1981, 31 July Torrijos d. The leader of Panama, General Omar Torrijos, was killed in a plane crash.
1982, 13 Nov Vietnam War Memorial dedicated in Washington DC
1982, 26 Nov Yasuhiro Nakasone elected PM of Japan succeeding Zenko Suzuki
1982 repatriation of Canadian Constitution
1983 operational Internet
1983 Beirut Grenada
1983, 29 Dec US announced withdrawal from UNESCO
1985, 1 Sep Titanic found Titanic, sunk in 1912, found by French & American scientists. —
1986 Space Shuttle
1983, 7 Nov Bomb explodes in US Capitol causing heavy damage but no injuries
1984, 6 Nov President Reagan again elected to a second term winning 49 states
1985, 4 Oct Atlantis 1 21st Space Shuttle Mission - Atlantis 1 is launched.
1985, 5 Oct Challenger 6 13th Space Shuttle Mission, Challenger 6 launched.
1983, 28 Dec Amanda Sinclair, b. Source: "Gary M. Sinclair, Harwich, Ma. USA" <>
1986, Sep Reagan bombs Lybia
1986, 14 Nov Boesky fined US Security & Exchange Comm impose a record $100 million penalty against Ivan Boesky
1987, Oct stock market crash
1989 George Bush Panama
1989 S.F. earthquake
1989, 22 June Supreme Court on flag burning US Supreme Court rules burning the US flag can be political expression.
1990, 11 Sep World War II peace treaty approved The four victorious allies of World War II (the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union) and Germany approved a peace treaty.
1990, 12 Sep World War II peace treaty signed The four victorious allies of World War II (the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union) and Germany signed a peace treaty. Germany was one again on October 3.
1987, Apr 15 Shawn M. Sinclair, b. Source: "Gary M. Sinclair, Harwich, Ma. USA" <>
1991, 15 Oct Richard Stokes b. Son of Margaret Stokes (milamba). Source: milamba
1992 L.A. riots
1993 Bill Clinton
1993, Apr 19 Waco
1994 NAFTA
1994, Dec Haiti
1997, Aug 31 Diana died Diana, Princess of Wales the first English girl to marry an heir to the British throne since Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, wed the future James II in 1660, died in 31/Aug/1997 (Still 30/Aug/1997 in the United Kingdom) killed at Place Alma, Paris.
1997, 18 Dec the list Sinclair Discussion List transmits first message.
1998, 2 Apr Prince Charles visits Rosslyn Chapel H.R.H. Prince Charles paid a visit to Rosslyn Chapel.
1999, 5 Mar Pete Cummings d. Longtime Clan Sinclair U.S.A. genealogist Henry S.C. (Pete) Cummings, Jr. dies.
1999, 5 Mar Henry S. C. (Pete) Cummings, Jr. d.
1999, Apr 1 Nunavut Formal creation date of the newest Canadian province.
2000, 20 Jan Lunar Eclipse (North America) Late in the evening.
1999, July 1 Modern Scottish Parliament Opening of first Scottish Parliament in 292 years.
1999 8 Oct Rachel Stokes b. Rachel (Niven and Lena's god-daughter) turns one on the 8th October! Daughter of Margaret Stokes (milamba). Source: milamba
1999, 5 Nov Sinclair Lords Elected Malcolm Sinclair, 20th Earl of Caithness, Peter St Clair-Erskine, 7th Earl of Rosslyn, elected to the reformed House of Lords by their peers.
2000, 6 Jan Laura Zolo sails Renowned Italian yachtswoman leaves Venice to re-enact voyage of the Zeno Brothers to Orkney; she is escorted to open sea by the Italian Navy.
2000, 8 Jan Nigel Tranter d. Scottish novelist dies.
2000, 21 Apr Good Friday
2000, 23 Apr Easter
2000, 5 May conjunction of 6 planets First time in 6000 years. Unfortunately, all the big planets are on the far side of the sun, and the small planets (Venus and Mercury) will be invisible in front of the sun.
2000, 21 June Summer Solstice The longest day of the year and the beginning of summer.
2000, 21 Jan Lunar Eclipse (Europe) Early morning.
2000, 25 Jan Up-Helly-Aa last Tuesday in Jan in Shetland.
2000, Sunday 27 Feb Canada AWG Clan Sinclair Association Canada Annual Winter Gathering, in Toronto.
2000, Mar 5 Bill Darrel Sinclair d. at 6:23 a.m. in Oklahoma City. He was born June 28 1934.
2000, 22 May Clan Sinclair Trust acquires Sinclair and Girnigoe Castles The trust has now acquired the historic Castles of Sinclair and Girnigoe Castles free of charge from the Earl of Caithness, the trust's chief executive. See also later news about the Castle.
2000, 11 July Queen Mother is 100 Clan officers attend 100th birthday celebration of the Queen Mother Elizabeth.
2000, Tuesday 25 July Sinclairs at Lords Reception in the evening at House of Lords
2000, Wednesday 26 July Sinclairs at Parliament Tour of Parliament
2000, Thursday 27 July Sinclairs at Rosslyn Rosslyn Chapel, Edinburgh Castle
2000, Friday 28 July Sinclairs to Caithness Stay in Caithness six nights.
2000, 25 Aug Pillarguri Days 2000 begin Similar to last year's celebration.
2000, 26 Aug Pillarguri Days 2000 main day Same date as the 1612 Battle of Kringen.
2000, Saturday 29 July Sinclairs at Halkirk Halkirk Games.
2000, Sunday 30 July Sinclairs in Church Church service
2000, Wednesday 2 Aug Clan Sinclair Meeting Formal Clan Meeting
2000, 5 Aug Viking Ships in Newfoundland L'Anse Aux Meadows.
2000, 26 Aug Viking Ships in Nova Scotia Halifax.
2000, 27 Aug Pillarguri Days 2000 last day Pictures of last year's celebration.
2000, 8 Sep Laura Zolo in Nova Scotia Laura Zolo and Captain Jack arrive in the 7 Roses at the town wharf in Guysborough, Nova Scotia, having retraced the path of the Zeno Brothers from Venice to Orkney to Nova Scotia.
2000, 9 Sep Viking Ships in Maine Portland.
2000, 16 Sep Viking Ships in Massachusetts Boston.
2000, 23 Sep Viking Ships in Connecticut New London.
2000, 30 Sep Viking Ships in New York New York City.
2000, 30 Sep Viking Ships in New York New York City.
2000, 7 Oct Viking Ships in Pennsylvania Philadelphia.
2000, 9 Oct Viking Dinner In Philadelphia.
2000, 23 Dec Madonna m. Guy Ritchie Marriage of Madonna at Dornoch, Sutherland (Scotland)
2001, 11 Sep World Trade Towers destroyed and Pentagon damaged by 3 hijacked U.S. airliners; fourth hijacked airplane crashes in Pennsylvania after hijackers counterattacked by passengers. Thousands dead.
2002, Saturday, 9 Feb Princess Margaret d. In a statement Buckingham Palace said: ``The Queen, with great sadness, has asked for the following announcement to be made immediately.''
"Her beloved sister, Princess Margaret, died peacefully in her sleep this morning at 6.30am in the King Edward VII Hospital."
She had a stroke. She was 71.
2002, Saturday, 9 Feb Princess Margaret d. In a statement Buckingham Palace said: ``The Queen, with great sadness, has asked for the following announcement to be made immediately.''
"Her beloved sister, Princess Margaret, died peacefully in her sleep this morning at 6.30am in the King Edward VII Hospital."
She had a stroke. She was 71.
2001, Mar 9 Ian Patrick (Kermit) St. Clare d.
2001, 26 Aug Sharon Francis Sinclair, d. mother of Donald Sinclair, Indianapolis, lost her battle with cancer this morning.
2001, Oct 16 Charles Patton d. Charles Patton, husband of Winifred Jessie Sinclair (dec), died at 11.30 pm Australian Eastern standard time 16/10/01., aged 98. He was born in Edinburgh and came to Australia between the wars. An engineer by training and very gifted with his hands. He was still driving his car (licensed to drive to 104) at 96. Not much vision nor hearing but proud and independent. On behalf of Clan Sinclair Australia, the Committee wishes to send their sympathy to his family, Craig Sinclair Patton, Jean Elizabeth Sharp, Duncan Patton and their partners and families. His eldest daughter Margaret Patton Trask died many years ago.
Jean Stokes
2002, 27 Sep Laurel Gene Fechner d.
2002, 19 Oct Stone Mt. Games 2002 Beginning of Stone Mountain, GA Scottish Festival and Highland Games. —Stanley St. Clair
2012, 23 Dec Fatima 3 Third secret of Fatima
2003, 11 Apr Clan Sinclair Trust moves to Coinciding with the news from the Field Archaeologists that there is only one Castle on the site, known now as Castle Sinclair Girnigoe, and the acceptance by Prince Charles of our invitation to succeed his Grandmother as Patron.

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