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Re: Rollo

    In a previous message you mentioned the possibility of William's death connected with the de Hautevilles.  Have you found new information, or was there a conspiracy between Arnulf and de Hautevilles?

    In "Historical Atlas of the Vikings" by John Haywood, it says, "Rollo was made count of Rouen. (the rulers of Normandy did not use the title "duke" before 1006)."
    I found in "William the Conqueror" by David C. Douglas the description of how through the reign of the Counts of Normandy they bestowed upon their many relatives the title of Count also.  Finally it seemed that Richard II began to use the title of Duke to distinguish himself above his relatives and other counts.  I think there have been references to the title of Duke being used much earlier in rare instances (and these might be a corruption that crept in from more modern authors) than 1006 and William the Conqueror used Count occasionally much later than 1050.  We may say that generally it is more correct to use Count when speaking of Rollo, William his son, and Richard I and then with Richard II, III, Robert and William the Bastard/ Conqueror it is more correct to use Duke.
----- Original Message -----
From: Privateers
Sent: Monday, December 06, 1999 9:19 AM
Subject: Rollo

The entire knowledge we have of Rollo is based on Dodo's colourful
accounts.  The title they both adopted was "Count".  in 1015 Richard
II was the first to style himself "Duke" and "Patrician".  He asserted his
right to control the church and appoint Dukes under it.
In 925 Rollo was defeated in the East at Ett at the place which would
become the Norman border.  His son William married a Christian, Lutegrade,
the daughter of Count Verrnadois II.  Her dowry was a frankish one and the
mint at Rouen bore not the picture of the King of France but that of the
Count, William Longsword. Very little is known about William Longsword.
William's murder in 942 by Arnulf of Flanders, threw the young dukedom,
really a principality, into chaos.  Richard I who succeeded William and
ruled 942-946, was an illegitimate child of his Breton mistress, whose
name is unknown.  In a twist of fate, both William and Richard had to
fight off Scandinavian warbands.  A certain Harold, rejecting Christianity,
established a independent power base at Bayeux.  The Frankish kings
attempted to reunite Normandy but failed due to internal rivalries in
France.  A concerted attack on Rouen came from Flanders and
Angou.  The Viking Legacy lived on.  The language of power remained
that of Charlamaine, the Normans by now no longer Vikings provided
the fiscal foundations of ducal powers.  They married into Frankish
society, Rollo for example married Poppa, the daughter of the Count
of Bayeux.  The Norse tongue survived longer in England than in
Normandy.  This may have been due to the similarities between the
Anglo Saxon and Norse.  The Normans, by the first half of the 11th
Century had lost their maritime ability and concentrated on the
feudal warhorse and land army.