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Earl of Orkney

Henry de Saint Clair was granted lands in Lothian in 1162.  The confusion arises
because of the grant to William the Seemly.  William was made First Baron of
Roselyn.  The grant to Henry is an entirely seperate grant.
(C) "Collins Encylopedia of Scotland" ed John and Julia Keay. 1994 Hammersmith.
It is not inconsistent that Henry should be granted lands later than William.
No one doubts or implies that William was granted the Barony of Roselyn earlier.
Henry de Saint Clair appears to be a descendant of William.  The grant of land
in Lothian was by Malcolm IV, great grandson of Canmore.  This grant was
confirmed by William I "The Lion".  Henry de Saint Clair is from this line; 
He obtained the title "Earl of Orkney" from the Norse King.
The relative insecurity and instability of dynastic politics are based upon the
unpredictable consequences of procreation of male hiers, marriage alliances
and usurptations.  The impersonal Crown survived dynastic fortunes.  The
grant of the Crown rent drew from the Viking tradition of ownership of land
in common.  The Earldom of Caithness was not granted by the Scots King
Robert II to Henry de Saint Clair.  The two Earldoms lay within the scope
of different Monarchs- Norway and Scotland;  Orkney was Norse and
Caithness was Scots.
(C) "Oxford History of Medieval Europe".  Ed George Holmes. New York 1988.
"A Travellers History of Scotland" Windrush Press.  Gloucestershire 1990.
In 1468/9 Scotland acquired both Orkney and Shetland from Norway.  The
King, James III, was still in his minority.  Scotland faced a 100 years of
underaged Kings.
(C) "A History of Medieval Europe" R.H.C. Davis. 2nd Ed. Adison Wesley
Longman Harlow 1970.
I find the comments concerning the Helsianic League and their Bank very
interesting.  The Hansa and Bundesbank link is tenous at best.  However
the concept that runs through European history is very interesting.
The current view of our Scots born power mad Prime Minister ("call me Tony and that is an order")
is to rush us into this dangerous alliance with the French and Germans must be resisted
at any cost.  We are British not Europeans. Our ties to Europe are strong and firm as long as we remain independant
I had earlier posted the following comment that I had
found in a French publication:
"France's history is now part of the history of a Europe that ever since the end Second World War
has tried to impose its unity in the face of the United States and teh URSS who had developed
into superpowers.  This desire for unity first found an economic, then a political, expression
(Creation of the European Parliament), and this desire was reaffirmed by the Maastricht agreement
in December 1991.  Following the reunification of Germany and the collapse of the Eastern bloc,
the european community faces the need to expand.  This will make it possible for it to assert
itself, at the dawn of the 3rd millenium, in its dealings with Japan - now becoming a world's
economic power - and with the United States, which, since the Gulf War, has reaffirmed its political
supremacy on the international scene."
"The Kings of France Ten centuries of art
and history in Europe" (Paris 1988  Editions Les Reperes de Temps)